Entertainment is an event or activity designed to give pleasure to the audience. Entertainment or rest may also refer to: Animated film 2014, Indian movies 2014 also known as your entertainment. "Rest", the track through the woods, in 2005 the album "Blondie". Entertainment group, post-punk band formed in 2002. Entertainment weekly American magazine, sometimes abbreviated EW. Entertainment!, gang of four 1979 album. The album is fun to add in 2009. Animated film 2015 film. Album entertainment water parks, 2018. The journal rest, and 2007-10 British entertainment magazine. "Entertainment" t ...
Entertainment is form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It can be an idea or task but is likely to be one of the activities or events that have developed over thousands of years specifically to keep the audiences attention. Although the attention of the people carry out different things, because people have different preferences in entertainment, most forms are recognisable and familiar. Storytelling, music, drama, dance and different types of activities exist in all cultures, were supported in Royal courts, developed into sophisticated forms and over time became available to all citizens. The process has been accelerated in modern times in the entertainment industry which records and sells entertainment products. The program evolves and can be adapted to any scale, from an individual who chooses a private entertainment From a now enormous variety of pre-recorded products, to a Banquet adapted for two, to any size and type of party, with appropriate music and dance, to performances intended for thousands and even for a global audience.
Experience entertaining became to be strongly associated with amusement, so that one common understanding of the idea of fun and laughter, although many entertainments have a serious purpose. This can take place in various forms of ceremony, celebration, religious festival, or satire for example. Therefore, there is a possibility that appears as entertainment may also be a means of achieving understanding or intellectual growth.
An important aspect of entertainment is the audience that turns a private recreation or leisure fun. The audience may have a passive role, as in the case of people watching a play, Opera, television show or film, or the audience role may be active, as in the case of games, where the participant / audience roles may be easily cancelled. Entertainment can be public or private, involving formal, scripted performance, as in the case of theatre or concerts, or unprepared and spontaneous, as in the case of childrens games. Most forms of entertainment persist for many centuries, evolving due to changes in culture, technology and fashion, for example, with stage magic. Movies and video games, for example, although they use new media, continue to tell stories, present drama, and music. Festivals devoted to music, movies, or dance allows the audience to be entertained for several days in a row.
Some recreational activities, such as public executions, is now prohibited in most countries. Species such as fencing or archery, once used in hunting or war, have become spectator sports. In the same way that other activities, such as cooking, have developed into performances among professionals, held in the global competitions and then broadcast for entertainment. What is entertainment for one group or individual can be regarded as a work or act of cruelty to others.
Familiar forms of entertainment have the capacity to cross over different media and have demonstrated a seemingly unlimited potential for creative Remix. This ensured the continuity and longevity of many themes, images and structures.
1. Psychology and philosophy. (Психология и философия)
Entertainment can be distinguished from other activities such as education and marketing even though they have learned to use the appeal of entertainment to achieve their different purposes. Sometimes the program may be a mixture of both. The importance and impact of entertainment is recognised by scholars and complication influenced practices in other fields such as museology.
Psychologists say the function of media entertainment is "having fun". No other results or measurable benefit usually expected from it, except perhaps final score sporting entertainment. This is in contrast education which designed purpose developing understanding helping people learn marketing which aims to encourage people to purchase commercial products. However, distinctions become blurred when education seeks to be more "fun" and entertainment or marketing seek to be more "educational". Such mixtures are often referred to by the neologisms "edutainment" or "infotainment". The psychology of entertainment as well as training were applied to all fields. Some education-entertainment is a serious attempt to combine the best features of both. Some people entertain others pain or the thought of their misfortune and malevolence.
Entertainment can go beyond the fun and produce some insight in its audience. Entertainment can skillfully considered a universal philosophical questions such as: "what is the meaning of life?" "What does it mean to be human?", "What is right?", or "how do I know what I know?". Such questions, many novels and dramas whether they are presented in the form of a story, film, plays, poems, books, dancing, comic or game. Dramatic examples include extruded influential play hamlet, whose hero articulates these issues in poetry, and films such as the Matrix, which explores the nature of knowledge, and was released worldwide. Novels give great scope to explore these themes while they entertain their readers. Example of creative work that considers philosophical questions so entertainingly that it was presented in a very wide range forms Hitchhikers guide to the Galaxy. Originally a radio Comedy, this story became so popular that she appeared as a novel, film, series, show, comic, Audiobook, record, adventure game and online game, its ideas became popular references see the phrase from "Hitchhikers guide to the Galaxy" and has been translated into many languages. Its themes encompass meaning life, and "ethics of entertainment, artificial intelligence, multiple worlds, God, and philosophical method".
2. History. (История)
loathing of writers and philosophers". As Dickens and Thackeray wrote about a hanging in Newgate prison in 1840, and "taught an even wider public that executions are obscene entertainments".
3. Children. (Дети)
Childrens entertainment is centred on Play and is significant for their growth. Entertainment for children and taught them adults many activities that appeal to them, such as puppets, clowns, pantomimes and cartoons are also enjoyed by adults.
Children have always played games. It is considered that, as well as being fun games contributes to the development of children. One of the most famous visual accounts of childrens games is a painting by Pieter Bruegel the Elder called childrens games painted in 1560. It depicts children playing various games, which, presumably, was typical of the time. Many of these games, such as marbles, hide and seek, blowing soap bubbles and riding piggyback continue to play.
Most forms of entertainment can be changed in accordance with childrens needs and interests. During the 20th century, starting with the often criticised but nonetheless important work of G. Stanley Hall, who "promoted the link between research development and the psychology laboratory", in particular the work of Jean piaget, who "saw cognitive development as analogous to biological development", it became clear that the mental development of the child occurs in stages and that their abilities differ from adults. Hence stories and activities whether in books, film or video games have been developed specially for children. Countries have responded to the special needs of children and the growth of digital entertainment by developing systems such as television ratings in the contextual advertising systems, to guide the public and the entertainment industry.
In the 21st century, as with adult products, much entertainment for kids on the Internet for private use. This is a significant contrast to earlier times. The amount of time spent by children indoors on screen entertainment and the "remarkable collapse of childrens interaction with nature" was criticized for its negative impact on imagination adult cognition and psychological well-being.
4.1. Form. Banquets. (Банкеты)
The Banquet was the venue for entertainment since ancient times until the 21st century when they still used many of their original purposes – to impress visitors, especially important ones are 4, 6, 9, station 2, 4, 8 as an occasion to showcase supporting entertainments such as music or dancing, or 2, 3. They were an integral part of court entertainment 3, 4, and helped entertainers develop their skills 2, 3. They are also important components of celebrations such as coronations 9, 7 weddings, birthday parties and 10 civil or political achievements 5, armed clashes and victories 6, as well as religious obligations 1. In modern times, banquets are commercially available, for example, in restaurants 10 and combined with a performance in dinner theatres. Cooking professional chefs has also become a form of entertainment in global competitions such as the Bocuse Dor.
- Banquets across 10 centuries and cultures.
4.2. Form. Music. (Музыка)
Music is a supporting component of many kinds of entertainment and most activities. For example, it is used to enhance storytelling, it is indispensable in dance 1, 4 and Opera, and, as a rule, included in the dramatic film or theatre productions.
Music is also a universal and popular type of entertainment on its own, constituting an entire performance, such as when concerts are held 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Depending on the rhythm, instrument, performance and style, music is divided into many genres such as classical, 3-jazz, folk, 4, 5, 8, rock and pop music 6, 9, or traditional to 1. Since the 20th century, performed music, once available only to those who can pay for the performers, was more accessible for people in the entertainment industry which broadcasts it or pre-records it for sale.
A variety of musical performances, whether they are artificially amplified 6, 7, 9, 10 all provide entertainment irrespective of the performance with soloists 6, 2 choral or orchestral groups 5, 8, or ensemble 3. Live performances use specialised venues, which can be small or large, indoors or outdoors, free or expensive. Audiences have different expectations performers as well as their own role in the play. For example, some audiences expect to listen silently and are entertained by the excellence of the music, its performance or its interpretation 5, 8. Other audiences live performances entertained ambience and the opportunity to participate 7, 9. More entertain listeners of pre-recorded music and listen to music 10.
The instruments used musical entertainment either solely human voice 2, or 6 solely instrumental 1, 3, or some combination of the two 4, 5, 7, 8. If the performance is given by vocalists or instrumentalists, the performers may be soloists or part of a small or large group, in turn entertaining an audience that may be individual 10, passed 3, small 1, large 2, or 6, 7, 8, 9. The singing is generally accompanied by instruments although some forms, particularly the a Cappella and overtone singing, nobody accompanied. Modern concerts often use various special effects and other theatrics to accompany performances of singing and dancing 7.
- Musical entertainment – 10 types of interaction with the audience.
4.3. Form. Game. (Игры)
Games are played for entertainment - sometimes purely for entertainment, sometimes for achievement or reward as well. They can be played alone, in team or online by Amateurs or professionals. Players may have audience non-players, for example, when people are entertained by watching a chess championship. On the other hand, players in a game may constitute their own audience as they take their turn to play. Often, part of the fun for kids is to decide who is part of their audience, and who the player is.
The equipment varies depending on the game. Board games such as Go, Monopoly or backgammon need a Board and markers. One of the oldest known Board games is Senet, a game in Ancient Egypt, enjoyed by the Pharaoh Tutankhamun. Card games such as whist, poker and bridge have long been played as evening entertainment among friends. For these games, all you need is a deck of playing cards. Other games, such as Bingo, played with many strangers, was organized to involve not played through gambling. Many are designed for kids and can be played outdoors, including hopscotch, hide and seek, or blind mans bluff Mans. List ball games quite extensive. It includes, for example, croquet, pétanque, paintball, as well as many sports using various forms of balls. Need to meet a wide range of abilities and fitness levels. Physical games can develop agility and competence in motor skills. Number games such as Sudoku and puzzles such as the Rubiks cube can develop mental flexibility.
Video games with a controller to create results on the screen. They can also be played online with participants working remotely. In the second half of the 20th century and into the 21st century, the number of such games increased enormously, providing a wide variety of entertainment to players around the world. Video games are popular all over the world.
- Game. (Игры)
4.4. Form. Reading. (Чтение)
Reading is a great source of entertainment for a very long time, especially when other forms, such as performance, entertainment was either unavailable or too costly. Even when the main purpose of the letter is to inform or instruct reading is well known for his ability to escape from everyday worries. Both stories and information are transmitted via the oral tradition and the oral tradition preserved in the form of poetry performance. However, they deteriorated sharply. "Once literacy had arrived in strength, there was no return to the oral prerogative." With the advent of printing, reducing the cost of textbooks and literacy all contributed to the mass appeal of reading. Furthermore, as fonts were standardised and texts became clearer, "reading ceased to be a painful process of decipherment and became an act of pure pleasure." In the 16th century in Europe, the appeal of reading for entertainment was well established.
Among the works of many genres are some designed, in whole or in part, purely for entertainment. Limericks, for example, use verse in a rigid, predictable rhyme and rhythm to create a mood and to amuse an audience of listeners or readers. Interactive books such as "choose your own adventure" can make literary entertainment more popular.
Comics and cartoons are literary genres that use drawings or graphics, usually in combination with text, to convey an entertaining narrative. Many contemporary comics have elements of fantasy and are produced by companies that are part of the entertainment industry. Other unique authors who offer more personal philosophical view of the world and peoples problems. Comics about superheroes such as Superman are of the first type. Examples second sort include individual work over 50 years, Charles M. Schulz, who produced popular comic called peanuts about the relationships between the characters baby and Michael leunig who entertains by producing whimsical cartoons that also contain social criticism. In the Japanese manga style differs from Western approach in that it covers a wide range of genres and topics for readers of all ages. Caricature uses a kind of graphic entertainment for purposes ranging from simply putting a smile on viewers, increase social awareness, to emphasize the moral characteristics of the person in caricature.
4.5. Form. Comedy. (Комедия)
Comedy as a genre of entertainment, and its components, providing laughter and entertainment, whether Comedy sole purpose or used as a contrast in a serious piece. It is a valuable source of many forms of entertainment, including in literature, theatre, Opera, film and games. In Royal courts, for example in the Byzantine court, and presumably, also in its wealthy households, "mimes were the focus of organized humour, expected or obliged to make fun of all at court, not even excepting the Emperor and members of Imperial family. This crosslinked the role of jester consisted of verbal humour, including teasing, ridicule, insults, ridicule, and obscenity and non-verbal humour such as slapstick and horseplay in the presence of the audience". In medieval times, all comic types – the buffoon, jester, Hunchback, dwarf, jokester, were all "considered to be essentially of one comic type: the fool", who while not necessarily funny, is a "personality flaws".
Shakespeare wrote seventeen comedies which include many of the techniques still used today by performers and writers of Comedy, such as jokes, puns, parody, wit, observational humor or the unexpected effect of irony. One-liner jokes and satire are also used to comedic effect in literature. In farce, Comedy is the main goal.
The meaning of the word "Comedy" and the expectations of the audience it has changed over time and vary with culture. Simple physical Comedy such as slapstick is entertaining to a wide range of people of all ages. However, as cultures become more sophisticated national nuances appear style references so whats funny in one culture may be incomprehensible in another.
4.6. Form. Performance. (Производительности)
Live performances before an audience constitute a major form of entertainment especially before invention audio video recording. Performance takes wide range forms including theatre, music and drama. In the 16th and 17th centuries, European Royal courts presented masks that were complex theatrical entertainments, dancing, singing and acting. Opera is the same demanding performance style that remains popular. It also covers all three forms demanding high level musical dramatic skill, collaboration and like the masque, production expertise as well.
Audience to show their appreciation of an entertaining performance with applause. However, all performers run the risk of not being able to hold their audiences attention and therefore, unable to relax. The discontent of the audience often honest and direct.
"Of course, you all know that while singing a good song, or giving a good recitation. helps to arrest public attention. Such at least was the case with me – the publican devised a plan to bring my entertainment end abruptly, and the plan was, he told the waiter to throw a wet towel at me, which, of course, the waiter did. and I got a wet towel, full force, in the face, which shocked me. and had the desired effect, to put an end to me giving any more entertainments in the house." William McGonagall a performance artist and poet
4.7. Form. Storytelling. (Сторителлинг)
The narrative is one of the oldest types of entertainment that has influenced almost all other forms. It is "not only fun, it is also thinking through human conflicts and contradictions". Hence, although stories may be delivered directly to small audiences, they are also presented as entertainment and used as components of any piece that relies on narrative, such as film, drama, ballet and Opera. Written stories complemented by illustrations, often to a very high artistic level, for example, on illuminated manuscripts and ancient scrolls such as Japanese. Stories remain common way entertaining group that is on the way. Showing how stories are used to pass the time and entertain an audience of travellers, pilgrims, Chaucer used in his literary work "the Canterbury tales" in the 14th century, as in the WU Chengen in the 16th century in journey to the West. Although the journey can be completed much faster stories are passengers on the route in cars and planes or delivered verbally or another form of technology.
The power of stories to entertain is evident in one of the most famous - Scheherazade - a story in the Persian professional storytelling tradition, about a woman who saves his life by telling stories. The relationships between the different types of entertainment are shown by the way that these stories inspire a retelling in another medium such as music, movies or games. For example, composers Rimsky-Korsakov, Ravel, Szymanowski, each of which was inspired by the Scheherazade story and turned it into orchestral works, film Director Pasolini made the film adaptation, is an innovative video game based on the tale. The stories I can tell without words, in music, dance or puppet, such as in the Javanese tradition of theatre in which the performance is accompanied by orchestra "gamelan" or the similarly traditional punch and Judy show.
Epic stories, poems, tales and allegories from all cultures tell such gripping stories that they have inspired countless other stories all forms entertainment. Examples include the Hindu Ramayana and Mahabharata, Homers Odyssey and Iliad, the first Roman Arabic al-Haya Ibn Yaqdhan, epic Shahnameh Persian sagas of Icelanders and the famous Tale of Genji. Collections of short stories, e.g. fairy tales of the brothers Grimm or Hans Christian Andersen, was also influential. Originally published in the early 19th century, this collection of folk stories noticeable influence of modern popular culture which subsequently used its themes, images, symbols and structural elements to create new forms of entertainment.
Some of the most powerful and lasting stories, the history of the Fund, also called origin or creation myths are like dreams, the myths of Australian aborigines, the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh, or the Hawaiian stories of the origin of the world. These, too, turn into books, movies, music and games in a way that increases their longevity and enhances their value.
- To tell stories. (Рассказывать истории)
4.8. Form. Theatre. (Театр)
Theatre performances, typically dramatic or musical, are presented on stage to the audience and have a history that dates back to Hellenistic times when "leading musicians and actors" performed widely at "poetical competitions", for example at "Delphi, Delos, Ephesus". Aristotle and his teacher Plato both wrote on the theory and purpose of theatre. Aristotle asked such questions as "what is the function of art in the formation of character? In cases where members of the ruling class only to watch performances or be a participant and perform? What kind of entertainment should be provided for those who do not belong to the elite?" In "the Ptolemies in Egypt, the Seleucids in Pergamum" also had a strong theatrical tradition and later, wealthy patrons in Rome staged "far more lavish productions".
Expectations about performance and their interaction with it has changed over time 1. For example, in England in the 18th century, "the prejudice against Actresses had faded," and in Europe as a whole, going to the theatre, once a socially dubious activity, became "a more respectable middle class pastime" in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when many popular entertainments increased. Operetta and music halls became available, and opened a new drama theatres such as the Moscow art theatre and the theatre suvorina in Russia. At the same time, commercial Newspapers "began to carry theatre columns and reviews" which helped to make theatre "a legitimate subject of intellectual debate" in General discussions about art and culture. The audience began to gather to "appreciate creative achievement, to marvel at, and be entertained, prominent stars." Vaudeville and music halls, popular at this time in the United States, England, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, were themselves eventually superseded.
Plays, musicals, monologues, MIME and poetry performance is part of a very long history of theater, which is also the place for the type of performance known as stand-up Comedy. In the 20th century, radio and television, often broadcast live, extended the theatrical tradition that continued to exist alongside the new forms.
The stage and the space in front of it for an audience to create theatre. All types of stage are used with all types of seats for the audience, including the impromptu or improvised 2, 3, 6, temporary 2, 9, or the traditional and permanent 5, 7. They are installed in the room 3, 5, 9, or outdoors 2, 4, 6. Management skill, organizing and preparing stage known as scenography 10. Experience the entertainment of the audience affects their expectations, set design, stage type, and in the living room.
- Theatrical stage production and set design.
4.9. Form. Cinema and movies. (Кино и фильмы)
Movies are one of the main forms of entertainment, although not all films have entertainment as their primary purpose: documentary film, for example, seeks to create a record or inform, although the two purposes often work together. Medium global business from the very beginning: "the lumière brothers were the first to send operators around the world, instructing them to remove anything that may be of interest to the public." In 1908 pathé released a newsreel on the First world war, movie met a huge need for mass entertainment. "In the first decade of the Century cinematic programmes combined, at random, fictions and newsfilms." The Americans first "contrived a way, creating the illusion of motion through successive images," but "the French have managed to transform a scientific principle into a commercially lucrative spectacle". Therefore, the film has become part of the entertainment industry from its early days. Increasingly sophisticated methods were used in the movie to delight and entertain the audience. Animation, for example, which includes the display of rapid movement in an art work, is one of these methods, in particular, appeals to a younger audience. The advent of computer graphics CGI in the 21st century ", it is possible to make the performance" more cheaply and "on a scale never dreamed of" Cecil B. DeMille. From 1930 to 1950-ies, cinema and radio was the "only mass entertainment", but by the second decade of the 21st century, technological changes, economic decisions, risk tolerance, and globalization reduces the quality and range of films are manufactured. Sophisticated visual effects and CGI technology, for example, and not men, were used not only to create realistic images of people, landscapes, and events both real and fantastic, but also to animate non-living items such as Lego normally used as entertainment as a game in physical form. The creators of the LEGO movie "wanted the audience to believe that they are looking at actual LEGO on my Desk that was filmed with a real camera, and not what we did, which was create vast environments with digital bricks inside the computer." The convergence of computers and film has allowed entertainment to be presented in a new way and the technology has also allowed for those who have the personal resources to screen films in a home theatre, recreating in a private venue the quality and experience of a public theatre. This is similar to how the nobility in earlier times could stage a musical or private use of domestic theaters in larger homes to perform private plays in the earlier centuries.
Films imagine entertainment from other forms, turning stories, books and plays, for example, on new entertainment. The story of the film, a documentary about the history of cinema, gives an overview of the global achievements and innovations in the medium, as well as changes in the concept of the film. It is shown that in certain films, especially Hollywood tradition that combines "realism and melodramatic romanticism", is intended as a form of escapism, others require a deeper engagement or more thoughtful response from his audience. For example, the award-winning film Xala by Senegalese authorities to corruption as its theme. Movie Charlie Chaplin Great dictator was a brave and innovative parody, and political issues. Stories that are several thousand years old, such as Noah, was reinterpreted in the movie, using familiar literary devices such as allegory and personification of new technologies such as CGI to explore the great themes such as "human stupidity", good and evil, courage and despair, love, faith and death – topics that were the main-stay of entertainment in all its forms.
As in other media, high professionalism and achievements in the films is reflected by a number of awards, including the American Academy of motion picture arts and Sciences, the British Academy of film and television arts, the international film festival in Cannes in France and the Asia Pacific screen awards.
4.10. Form. Dance. (Танец)
Different forms of dance provide entertainment for all age groups and cultures. Dance can be serious in tone, such as when it is used to Express cultural history or important stories, it can be provocative, or he can put at the service of Comedy. Because it combines many forms of entertainment – music, movement, storytelling, theatre – its a good example of the different ways that these forms can be combined to create entertainment for different purposes and audiences.
Dance is "a form of cultural representation" that involves not just dancers, but "choreographers, audience, patrons and impresarios. coming from all corners of the globe and from various periods of time." Whether from Africa, Asia or Europe, dance is constantly negotiating the realms of political, social, spiritual and artistic influence." Even though dance traditions may be limited to one cultural group, they all evolve. For example, in Africa, there are "Dahomean dances, Hausa dances, Masai dances and so forth." Ballet is an example of a highly developed Western form of dance that moved to the theatres from the French court during the reign of Louis XIV, the dancers becoming professional theatrical performers. Some dances like the quadrille, the square dance that "emerged during the Napoleonic years in France" and other dances were popular at social gatherings like balls, but now rarely. On the other hand, many folk dances, such as highland dancing and Irish dancing developed in the competition, adding to their audiences, has increased their value. "Irish dance theatre, which sometimes features a traditional Irish steps and music, turned into a big dance with an international reputation".
Since dance is often "associated with the female body and womens experiences", female dancers who dance to entertain, in some cases, was seen in contrast to the "decent" women because they "use their bodies to earn a living, instead of hiding them as possible." Societys attitude to the dancers depend on the culture, its history and the entertainment industry. For example, while some cultures regard any dancing women as "shameful entertainment" in other cultures were established centres such as strip clubs where deliberately erotic or sexually provocative dances such as Striptease are performed in public by professional women dancers for mostly male audiences.
Different political regimes are trying to control or ban dancing or specific types of dancing, sometimes because of disapproval of the music or clothes associated with it. Nationalism authoritarianism and racism have played a part in banning dances or dancing. For example, during the Nazi regime, American dances such as swing, regarded as "completely UN-German", "was a state crime and should be banned". Similarly, in Shanghai, China, in 1930-e years, "dancing and Nightclubs had come to symbolize the excess that plagued Chinese society" and officials wondered if "other forms of entertainment such as brothels" should be prohibited. The ban has the effect of "dance craze" even greater. In Ireland, the law On the public dance hall, 1935 "banned – but not stop – dancing at the crossroads and other popular dance forms such as house and barn dances." In the US once had various dances banned, either because like burlesque, they were suggestive, or because, as a twist, they were associated with African Americans. "African American dancers, as a rule, banned from performing in a minstrel show until the end of the Civil war."
The dances can be performed solo 1, 4, pairs, 2, 3, groups 5, 6, 7, or massed performers 10. They can be homemade 4, 8, or set high 1, 2, 5, 10, spontaneous for personal entertainment, such as when children begin dancing for themselves private audience 4 paying audience 2, to the world community, 10, or an audience interested in a specific dance genre, 3, 5. They can be part of a celebration such as a wedding or New years 6, 8, or a cultural ritual with a specific purpose, for example, the dance of the warriors as a hack 7. Some dances, such as dance in 1 and ballet in 2, need a very high level of skill and training, others, such as the can-can, require a very high level of energy and physical fitness. Entertaining the audience is a normal part of dance but its physicality often also produces joy dancers themselves 9.
- Dance – 10 types on 10 crops.
4.11. Form. Animals. (Животные)
Animals were used for the purposes of entertainment for millennia. They hunted for entertainment, as opposed to hunt for food displays as they hunt for prey, watching, when they compete with each other, and watched as they perform the routine preparation for the entertainment of people. The Romans, for example, entertained as competitions involving wild animals and perfect trained animals. They watched as "lions and bears danced to the music of pipes and cymbals, horses were trained to kneel, bow, dance and prance. acrobats turning flips over wild lions and vaulting over wild leopards." There were "violent confrontations with wild beasts" and "performances over time became more brutal and bloody."
Animals that perform training routines or "acts" for human entertainment include fleas flea circus, dolphins in dolphinaria, and monkeys doing tricks for an audience on behalf of the player of the hurdy-gurdy. Animals kept in zoos in ancient times were often kept there for later use in the arena as entertainment for their entertainment, as exotic.
Many contests between animals now regarded as sports, e.g. horse racing is considered a sport and an important source of entertainment. Its economic impact means that it is also considered a global industry one in which horses are carefully transported around the world to compete in races. In Australia at the races run on the day of the Melbourne Cup is a public holiday and the public about race as an important annual event. Like horse racing, camel racing requires human riders while Greyhound racing is not. People find it interesting to watch animals race competitively, whether they are trained, like horses, camels or dogs, or untrained, like cockroaches.
The use of animals for entertainment is often controversial, especially in hunting wild animals. Some contests between animals, once popular entertainment for the public have become illegal because cruelty. Among them, blood sports such as bear-baiting dogs, cock fighting and dog fighting. Other contests involving animals remain controversial and have both supporters and detractors. For example, the conflict between opponents shooting who view it as "a cruel and moronic exercise in marksmanship, and proponents, who view it as entertainment" has been tested in court. Fox hunting which involves use horses and dogs and Bulls, which has strong theatrical component, are two entertainments that have a long and significant cultural history. They both involve animals and different is seen as a sporting, recreational or cultural traditions. Among the organizations established to protect the rights of animals, some of which are problems the use of animals for entertainment. However, "in many cases, action teams against the organization of animals accused of animal cruelty, both sides have cultural claims."
- Animals are used for entertainment.
4.12. Form. Circus. (Цирк)
A circus, described as "one of the most brazen of entertainment forms", is a special kind of theatrical performance that includes a variety of physical skills such as acrobatics and juggling, and sometimes trained animals. Usually think of as a traveling circus was performing in the big top, the circus was first performed in a permanent place. Philip Astley is considered the founder modern circus second half 18th century Jules leotard, a French performer credited developing art trapeze is synonymous with spectacle. Astley has collected performances that were generally familiar in traditional British fairs "at least since the beginning of the 17th century": "tumbling, rope-dancing, juggling, stunts, animals and so forth." He argued that "there is no direct link between the Roman circus and the circus of modernity. Between the demise of the Roman circus and the Foundation of Astleys amphitheatre in London about 1300 years later, the closest thing to a circus ring was the rough circle of onlookers who had gathered around a stray tumbler or juggler on the green".
4.13. Form. Magic. (Магия)
In the form of entertainment known as stage magic or witchcraft and recognisable as performance, is based on traditions and texts of magical rites and dogmas that were part of most cultural traditions since ancient times.
Stage magic is performed for an audience in various media and locations: on stage, on television, on the street, and live at parties or events. It is often combined with other forms of entertainment, such as Comedy or music and showmanship is often an essential part of magic performances. Performance magic relies on deception, psychological manipulation, sleight of hand and other forms of deception, to give the viewer the illusion that a performer can achieve the impossible. The audience is amazed by the performances of stuntmen and escape acts of Harry Houdini, for example, to consider him as a magician.
Fantasy magicians have held an important place in literature for centuries, offering entertainment for millions of readers. Famous wizards such as Merlin in the Arthurian legends were written from about the 5th and 6th centuries, and in the 21st century, young wizard Harry Potter became a global entertainment phenomenon when the book series about him sold about 450 million copies as of June 2011, making it the best-selling book series in history.
4.14. Form. Street performance. (Уличный спектакль)
Street entertainment, street performance or "busking" are forms of work that have been meeting the public need for entertainment for centuries. It was "an integral part of London life", for example, when the city in the early 19th century was "filled with spectacle and diversion". Minstrels or troubadours are part of a tradition. The art and practice of improvisation is still celebrated at the annual street festivals concerts.
There are three main forms of modern street performance. The first form is the "circle show". It tends to gather a crowd, usually has a definite beginning and end, and this is done in connection with street theatre, Puppet theatre, magicians, comedians, acrobats, jugglers and sometimes musicians. This type has the potential to be the most lucrative for the performer because there are likely to be more donations from larger audiences, if they entertain of the law. Good buskers control the crowd so customers not to impede circulation. The second form, go law, has no distinct beginning or end. Typically, the busker provides an entertaining ambience, often with an unusual instrument, and the audience will not stop to watch or form a crowd. Sometimes it is to act spontaneously turns into a circle show. The third form, a café impromptu, done mostly in restaurants, pubs, bars and cafes. Such actions sometimes use public transport as a place.
4.15. Form. Parades. (Парады)
Parades are held for different purposes, often more than one. Whether their mood somber and festive, being public events that are designed to attract attention and activities that necessarily divert normal traffic, parades have a clear entertainment value to their audiences. Cavalcade take a modern variant, tuple, examples of public processions. Some people watching the parade or procession may have made a special effort to attend while others become part audience happenstance. Regardless of their mood or the main purpose, parades attract and entertain people who watch, as they passed by. Sometimes it takes a parade in a makeshift theatre space, such as trooping the colour 8 and tickets sold physical audience while global audience participates via broadcast.
One of the earliest forms of Parade of "Victory" – Grand and sensational displays of foreign treasures and spoils, given by triumphant Roman generals to celebrate their victories. They presented conquered peoples and Nations that exalted the authority of the Victor. "In the Summer of 46 BC, Julius Caesar chose to celebrate four victories is held on different days extending for one month." In Europe from the middle ages to the Baroque the Royal entry celebrated formal visit monarch city parade through elaborately decorated streets, passing various shows and presentations. The annual Lord mayors show in London is an example of a civic parade that has survived since the middle Ages.
Many religious holidays, especially those who include in processions, such as Holy Week processions or the Indian festival of Holi to have some entertainment appeal in addition to their serious purpose. Sometimes, religious rituals have been adapted or turned into secular entertainment, or as Festa del Redentore in Venice, managed to grow in popularity while holding both secular and sacred purposes in balance. However, the pilgrimage, such as the Roman Catholic pilgrimage way of St. James, the Muslim Hajj and the Hindu Kumbh Mela, which may seem to the outsider as a spectacular parade or procession is not intended as entertainment: they, not the physical spiritual journey. Consequently, the relationship between the viewer and the participant, unlike the regular entertainment, the different. The manner in which the Kumbh Mela, for example, "divorced from its cultural context and repackaged for Western consumption – has the presence of voyeurs very problematic."
Parades generally impress and delight often including unusual colourful costumes 7, 10. Sometimes they are also celebrating 5, 8, or celebrate 1, 4, 6, 8, 9. Sometimes they have a serious purpose, for example, when the context is military 1, 2, 5, when the intention is Sometimes to intimidate, or religious, when the audience might participate or have a role to play 6, 7, 10. Even if a parade uses new technology and at a distance 9, it is likely to have strong appeal to attract the audiences attention and entertain them.
- Parades – 10 types, six cultures.
4.16. Form. Fireworks. (Фейерверк)
Fireworks are part of many public entertainments and have retained strong popularity since they became a "crowning feature of the development of feasts" in the 17th century. First used in China, classical antiquity and Europe for military purposes, fireworks were most popular 18th century high prices were paid for pyrotechnists, especially in Italy, which were caused in other countries to organise displays. Fire and water were important aspects court spectacles because the displays "inspired by means of fire, sudden noise, smoke and General magnificence of feeling, thought side of the subject to entertain of his sovereign: awe fear and a vicarious sense of his glory. Birthdays, name days, weddings and anniversaries provided the occasion for celebration". One of the most famous courtiers of the use of fireworks were used to celebrate the end of the war of the Austrian succession and while the fireworks themselves caused fire accompanying Music Royal fireworks written by Handel has been popular ever since. Apart from their contribution to entertainments related to military successes courtly displays and personal celebrations fireworks are used as part of religious ceremonies. For example, in the Indian Dashavatara Kala of Gomantaka "the temple deity around in procession with singing, dancing and fireworks."
"Fire, sudden noise and smoke" of fireworks still significant part public celebration and fun. For example, the fireworks were one of the main forms of manifestation to mark the start of the new Millennium all over the world. As the clock struck midnight and 1999 became 2000, fireworks and open-air parties greeted New year time zone moved into the next century. Fireworks, carefully planned and choreographed, were let go amid the host of the worlds most famous buildings including Sydney harbour bridge, the pyramids of Giza in Egypt, the Acropolis in Athens, red square in Moscow, the Vatican in Rome, Brandenburg gate in Berlin, the Eiffel tower in Paris, Elizabeth Tower in London.
4.17. Form. Sport. (Спорт)
Sporting competitions have always provided entertainment for the crowd. To distinguish players from audience latter often referred to as the audience. Events at the stadium and in the hall design, as well as in recording and broadcast technology have allowed off-site spectators to watch the sport, bringing the size of the audience became more and more a spectator sport is becoming more popular. Two of the most popular sports worldwide are football and cricket. Their ultimate international competitions, the world Cup football and cricket matches which are broadcast around the world. In addition to the very large numbers involved in playing these sports, they are distinguished by the fact that the main source of entertainment for many millions non players worldwide. Comparable multi-stage, long-form sport in the world is the Tour de France, unusual in that takes place outside of special stadia, not to work in the countryside.
In addition to the sports that have worldwide appeal and competitions, such as Olympic games entertainment value sport depends on the culture and country where people play it. For example, in the United States, baseball and basketball are popular forms of entertainment in Bhutan, the national sport is archery, in New Zealand, it is Rugby, in Iran, it is freestyle Wrestling. Unique Japanese sumo wrestling contains ritual elements that derive from its long history. In some cases, such as the international running group hash house Harriers, participants create a blend of sport and entertainment for themselves, without the participation of the viewer, where the social component is more important than low.
Evolution of activity in the sports and entertainment also depends on the local climate and conditions. For example, the modern sport of surfing is associated with Hawaii and skiing probably evolved Scandinavia. While these sports and the entertainment they offer to spectators have spread around the world, people in the two countries of origin are well known for their prowess. Sometimes climate offers chance adapt another sport, for example, in the case of hockey, an important entertainment in Canada.
4.18. Form. Fairs, exhibitions, shopping. (Ярмарки, выставки, шоппинг)
Fairs and exhibitions have existed since ancient and medieval times to show wealth, innovations and objects for trade and offering specific entertainments as well as places of entertainment in themselves. Whether its a medieval market or a small shop, "shopping always offered forms of exhilaration that took one away from everyday life." However, in the modern world, "merchandising has become entertainment: spinning signs, flashing signs, thumping music. video screens, interactive computer kiosks, day. café".
In the 19th century "exhibition" which encourage arts, crafts and trade became international. They were not only very popular, but affected international ideas. For example, in the Paris exhibition of 1878 contributed to the development of international cooperation about ideas, innovations and standards. From London 1851 to Paris 1900, "in excess of 200 million visitors had entered the turnstiles in London, Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia, Chicago and many small shows in the world". After the Second world war "more than 500 million visits have been recorded through world Expo turnstiles". As a form of spectacle and entertainment, expositions influenced "everything from architecture, models of globalization, the basic questions of the human person" and in the process established the close relationship between "fairs, the rise of Department stores and museums", in the modern world of mass consumption and the entertainment industry.
- Entertainment in exhibitions and shops.
5. Security. (Безопасности)
Some activities, for example on big festivals, whether religious or secular, concerts, clubs, parties and celebrations, involve big crowds. From the earliest times, crowds at an entertainment have associated hazards and dangers, especially when combined with the recreational consumption of intoxicants such as alcohol. The ancient Greeks had Dionysian mysteries, for example, and the Romans had Saturnalia. The consequence of excess and crowds can produce violations of social norms of behaviour, which sometimes leads to injury or even death, for example, at the Altamont free concert, an outdoor rock festival. A list of major incidents at Nightclubs are those that are caused by a stampede, crowding, counter-terrorism such as the Bali 2002 bombings targeting a night club, and especially fire. Studies similar conducted in the United States after a nightclub fire suppression station often shows that the conclusions "on fire safety in Nightclubs" from earlier events such as the coconut grove fire "does not necessarily result in lasting effective change". Efforts to prevent such incidents include appointing special officers, such as the medieval Lord of Chaos or, in our time, the security forces, access control, and continuous improvement of relevant standards, such as building security. The tourism industry now concerns the safety and security in places of entertainment as one of the important tasks of management.
6. Industry. (Промышленность)
Although kings, rulers and powerful people have always been able to pay for entertainment for them and in many cases have paid for public entertainment, people generally have made own entertainment or when possible, take part in a live performance. Technological development in the 20th century means that the program can be made regardless of the audience, packaged and sold on a commercial basis entertainment industry. Sometimes referred show business industry relies on business models to produce, market, broadcast or otherwise distribute many its traditional forms including performances all types. The industry became so sophisticated that its Economics became a separate scientific research.
The film industry is part of the entertainment industry. Its components include the Hollywood and bollywood film industry and cinema of the United Kingdom and all the cinemas of Europe, including France, Germany, Spain, Italy and others. The sex industry is another component of the entertainment industry, applying the same forms and means for the development, marketing and sale of sex products on a commercial basis.
Theme parks entertain visitors with rides such as roller coasters, ridable miniature railway, water rides, and Dark rides, and other events and related attractions. Parks built on a large area divided into themed areas named "lands". Sometimes whole amusement Park based on one subject such as various aquarium parks that focus on the topic of life at sea.
One of the consequences of the development of the entertainment industry is the creation of new types of employment. While jobs such as writer, musician and composer exist as they always have, people doing this work are likely to be used by the company, and not as a patron as they once were. New jobs have appeared, for example, grandfather or special effects supervisor in the film industry, and attendants in an amusement Park.
The prestigious awards are given to industry for outstanding achievement in various forms of entertainment. For example, there are awards for music, games including video games, comics, Comedy, theatre, television, film, dance and magic. Sports awards are awarded for the results and skill, not for entertainment.
- The entertainment industry. (Индустрия развлечений)
7.1. Architecture. Architecture for entertainment. (Архитектура для развлечения)
Purpose-built structures as venues for entertainment that audiences have produced many famous and innovative buildings, among the most famous of which are theatre structures. For the ancient Greeks, "the architectural importance of the theatre is a reflection of their importance to the community is apparent in their monumentality, in the fact that in their design and the care in their detail." The Romans subsequently developed the stadium in an oval form known as a circus. In modern times, some of the grandest buildings for entertainment have brought fame to their cities and their planners. Sydney Opera house, for example, is a world heritage site and the complex O₂ in London is an entertainment precinct that contains an indoor arena, a music club, cinema and exhibition space. The Bayreuth Festival Palace in Germany is a theatre designed and built for performances one specific musical composition.
Two of the main architectural problems in the design of platforms for mass audiences access speed and security. The speed with which the place is empty, it is not only important for convenience and safety because large crowds take a long time to disperse from badly designed venue, which creates a security risk. The Hillsborough disaster is an example of how poor aspects building design can contribute audience deaths. Visibility and acoustics are also important design factors in most theatrical venues.
In the 21st century, entertainment venues, especially stadiums, "likely to figure among the leading architectural genres". However, they require a "completely new approach" to design, because they need to be "sophisticated entertainment centres, multi-functional objects of experience, is able to be enjoyed in different ways." So now the architects to design "with two distinct functions in mind, as sports and leisure centres perform in live audiences, and as sports and entertainment studios serving the viewing and listening requirements of the remote audience".
- Architecture for entertainment. (Архитектура для развлечения)
7.2. Architecture. Architecture as entertainment. (Архитектура в качестве развлечения)
Architects who are pushing the boundaries of design or construction sometimes create buildings that are entertaining because they exceed the expectations of the public and the client and are aesthetically outstanding. Buildings such as the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, designed by Frank Gehry, are of this type, it becomes a tourist attraction, as well as significant international Museum. Other apparently useful buildings really nonsense, intentionally designed for decorative purposes and are not intended to be practical.
On the other hand, sometimes architecture is entertainment, while pretending to be functional. The tourism industry for example creates or updates the buildings as "attractions" that have either never been used or cannot be used for their pretext. They instead convert often entertain visitors by simulating cultural experiences. Thus, buildings, history and sacred spaces are made into Commodities for purchase. Such intentional tourist attractions divorce buildings from the past so that "the difference between historical authenticity and contemporary entertainment venues / parks becomes hard to define". Examples include "the preservation of the alcázar of Toledo, with its grim Civil war history, the conversion of a slave in the dungeons attractions in Ghana, and the presentation of indigenous culture in Libya". In specially constructed buildings in amusement parks represent theme parks and usually neither authentic nor completely functional.
8.1. The impact of developments in electronic media. Globalization. (Глобализация)
The second half of the 20th century, with the development of electronic media made possible the delivery of entertainment products to mass audiences around the world. Technology has allowed people to see, hear and participate in all the familiar forms – stories, theatre, music, dance – wherever they live. The rapid development of technology contributed to the improvement of data storage devices such as tapes or compact discs, along with increasing miniaturization. Computerization and the development of barcodes also made tickets easier, faster and more global.
8.2. The impact of developments in electronic media. Obsolescence. (Устарение)
In 1940-ies of radio electronic means for family entertainment and information. In the 1950-ies, it was the TV that was in a new environment and quickly became global, resulting in visual entertainment, first in black and white, then in color, in the world. In the 1970s, games could be played electronically, then hand-held device of mobile entertainment, and in the last decade of the 20th century, via networked play. In combination with products from entertainment industry all traditional forms entertainment became available personally. People could only select entertainment products such as music, movie or game, they could choose the time and place to use it. "The proliferation of portable media players and the emphasis on the computer as a site for film consumption" together have significantly changed how audiences encounter films. One of the most visible effects of the growth of electronic entertainment has been rapid obsolescence various recording methods and storage. As an example, the speed of the changes brought about by electronic media, within one generation, television as a means to obtain the standard entertainment products went from unknown, to novel, to ubiquitous and finally replaced. One estimate was that by 2011 over 30% of U.S. households will have a Wii console, "about the same percentage that owned a television in 1953". Some people were expecting in the middle of the second decade of the 21st century, the Internet entertainment would have completely replaced television, which didnt happen. The so-called "digital revolution" has spawned an increasingly transnational market, which has caused difficulties for governments, business, industries and individuals as they all tried to keep up. Even the sports stadium of the future will increasingly compete with television viewing ". from the point of view of comfort, safety and a constant flow of audio-visual information and entertainment." Other consequences of the change are likely to include data on public architecture such as hospitals and nursing homes, where television, regarded as the main entertainment service for patients, must be replaced by Internet access. At the same time, the ongoing need for artists, as a "professional with its allies" shows the continuity of traditional entertainment.
8.3. The impact of developments in electronic media. Convergence. (Конвергенция)
By the second decade of the 21st century, analogue recording was replaced with digital recording all forms electronic entertainment began to converge. For example, convergence is challenging standard practices in the film industry: whereas "success or failure used to be determined the first weekend of its run. Today. the series showcases such as DVD, pay-per-view channels, and a fiber-optic video-on-demand are used to maximise profit". Part of the restructuring is the release of new commercial product directly via video hosting. Convergence media say more than technological: the convergence is cultural as well. It is also "the result of purposeful work on protection of interests of economic entities, political institutions and other groups". Globalization and cultural imperialism are two of the cultural consequences of convergence. Others include fandom and interactive elements, as well as the way that single franchises are distributed and influence the choice of delivery methods. "The great variety of ways that signals can be received and blanks for the viewer, via terrestrial, satellite or cable TV, and of course, via the Internet" also affects entertainment venues, such as sports stadia, which now need to be designed so that both live and remote audiences can interact in increasingly sophisticated ways – for example, audiences can "watch highlights, call up statistics", "order tickets and merchandise" and generally "tap the stadiums resources at any time of the day and night."
The introduction of television altered the availability, cost, variety and quality of entertainment products for the population and the convergence of online entertainment is having a similar effect. For example, the possibility and popularity of user generated content, in contrast to the commercial product, creates a "model of the web audience makes programming obsolete". Individuals and corporations use video hosting service to broadcast content that is equally accepted by the public as legitimate entertainment.
While technology increases demand for entertainment products and offers increased speed of delivery, the forms that constitute the content by themselves, relatively stable. Storytelling, music, theatre, dance and games are recognisably the same as in the past century.
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