Dalai Lama - deified people. The Dalai Lama is a title given to the Tibetan people for everything, the spiritual leader of the Gelug or yellow hat school of ..

Dalai Lama

Dalai Lama

The Dalai Lama is a title given to the Tibetan people for everything, the spiritual leader of the Gelug or "yellow hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the latest of the classical school of Tibetan Buddhism. The Dalai 14 and the current Lama Tenzin Gyatso, who lives as refugees in India.

The Dalai Lama is also considered to be the successor in a line of Tulkus who are considered incarnations of Avalokiteshvara, the bodhisattva of compassion. The name is a combination of the Mongolian word Dalai means "ocean" or "great" coming from Mongolia the name Dalaiyin blood or Dalaiin Khan, which means Gyatso in Tibetan and the Tibetan word བླ་མ་ bla-MA meaning "master".

From the time of the 5th Dalai Lama in the 17th century, his character has always been a symbol of unity of the state of Tibet, where he represented the Buddhist values and traditions. The Dalai Lama was an important figure in the tradition of the Geluk profile, which was politically and numerically dominant in Central Tibet, but his religious authority went beyond sectarian boundaries. Although he had no formal or institutional role in any religious tradition, at the head of which stood their own high Lama, he was the unifying symbol of the Tibetan state represents the Buddhist values and traditions on a specific school. The traditional functions of the Dalai Lama as a universal figure, holding disparate religious and regional groups has led to the current Dalai Lama. He worked to overcome sectarian and other divisions in the exile community and became the symbol of Tibetan nationhood for Tibetans, both in Tibet and in exile.

From 1642 until 1705 and 1750 and 1950 the years of the Dalai lamas or their Regents at the head of the Tibetan government or Ganden Phodrang in Lhasa, which are governed by all or a large part of the Tibetan plateau, with varying degrees of independence when the Qing dynasty of China, Tibet was under the air-Tibetan suzerainty, and the controversial period of "de facto independence" from 1913 to 1951. It is the Tibetan government had also enjoyed the patronage and protection of the first Khoshut Mongol kings and Dzungar khanates 1642-1720, and then of the emperors of the Manchu-Led 1720-1912 Qing dynasty. In 1913, several Tibetan representatives, including Agvan Dorjiev, a Treaty was signed between Tibet and Mongolia, proclaiming mutual recognition and their independence from China, but the legitimacy of the Treaty and proclaimed the independence of Tibet, was rejected as the Republic of China and the current China. The Dalai Lama has headed the Tibetan government thereafter, in spite of this, until 1951.


1. History. (История)

In the Central Asian Buddhist countries, it was widely believed, in the last Millennium that Avalokitesvara, the bodhisattva of compassion, has a special relationship with the people of Tibet and interfere in their destiny, embodied as benevolent rulers and teachers such as the Dalai Lama. This is the book of Kadam, the core text of the Kadampa school, where 1st Dalai Lama Gendun Drup, the first one belonged to. In fact, this text is said to have laid the Foundation for subsequent identification of the Tibetans, the Dalai Lamas as incarnations of Avalokitesvara.

It traces the legend of the incarnations of the Bodhisattva in the early Tibetan kings and emperors, such as Songtsen gampo and later Dromtonpa 1004-1064.

This line was extrapolated Tibetans, including the Dalai Lama.


1.1. History. Roots in myth and legend. (Корнями в миф и легенду)

Thus, according to these sources, the informal line of succession of the current Dalai Lama, incarnation of Avalokitesvara goes back much further than Hendon Grub. The book of Kadam, preparation of the Kadampa teachings in the first team during the discussion between the Indian sage, Atisa 980-1054 and his Tibetan master and the chief disciple Dromtonpa and tales about the previous incarnations of Arya Avalokiteshvara’ to nominate as many as sixty people to Gendun Drub, which is described in the earlier incarnations of Avalokiteshvara and his predecessors in the same line leading up to it. Briefly, they include the mythology of the 36 Indian personalities plus 10 early Tibetan kings and emperors in all previous incarnations of Dromtonpa, and fourteen additional Nepalese and Tibetan yogis and sages between him and the 1st Dalai Lama. In fact, according to the "birth link" article on the website of the 14th Dalai Lama, he is "seventy-fourth in a lineage that can be traced back to a brahmin boy who lived in the time of Shakyamuni Buddha.


1.2. History. The Dalai Avalokitesvaras "the master plan of Lama". (Далай-Avalokitesvaras "мастер-план Лама")

According to the 14th Dalai Lama, long ago Avalokiteshvara Buddha promised to guide and protect the Tibetan people and at the end of the middle Ages, its General plan to fulfill this promise was to gradually create a theocracy of the Dalai Lama in Tibet.

First, he created the three great monasteries of Lhasa in the province of U, before he died in 1419. The 1st Dalai Lama soon became rector of the largest, Drepung, and have developed a great popularity in the U.S. he later expanded this to cover Tsang, where he built the fourth great monastery of Tashi lhunpo in Shigatse. 2nd studied there, before returning to Lhasa, where he became the Abbot of Drepung. Having reactivated the 1sts popular following Tsang and U, 2nd then moved on to southern Tibet and gathered more than there are followers who helped him to build a new monastery, Chokorgyel. He also created a method by which later incarnations, the Dalai Lama will be discovered through visions in the "Oracle lake", Lhamo Lhatso. 3rd built on his fame predecessors, becoming Abbot of the two great monasteries of Drepung and sera. Everything was ready for the great Mongol king Altan Khan, hearing of his reputation, offer 3rd to Mongolia, where he converted the king and his followers of Buddhism and other Mongolian princes and their followers a huge tract of Central Asia. Thus, most of Mongolia was added to the Dalai Lamas sphere of influence, the establishment of a spiritual Empire, which is largely preserved to the present. Once given the name of the Dalai Mongolian, he returned to Tibet to find the great monasteries Litan in Kham, in Eastern Tibet and the Kumbum in Amdo, northeastern Tibet. 4-I was born in Mongolia as the grandson of Altan Khan, thus cementing strong ties between Central Asia, the Dalai Lama and the Gelugpa in Tibet. Finally, pursuant to the General plan Avalokitesvaras, 5th in the series used in the vast popular power base of dedicated followers built up his four predecessors. In 1642, a strategy that was planned and carried out his resourceful chagdzo or Manager Sonam Rapten with the military help of his devoted disciple of Gushri Khan, leader of Khoshut Mongols, with the support of the big 5-I found the Dalai Lama, religious and political rule over more or less the whole of Tibet, which lasted more than 300 years.

Thus, the Dalai Lama was an outstanding spiritual leaders of Tibet and 25 Himalayan and Central Asian kingdoms and the countries bordering Tibet and their prolific literary works "for centuries acted as the main sources of spiritual and philosophical inspiration for more than fifty million people in these lands." Overall, they played "a monumental role in Asian literary, philosophical and religious history."


1.3. History. As the Dalai Lama kind was created. (Как Далай-Лама рода был создан)

Gendun 1391-1474 Drup, a disciple of Je Tsongkapa, the founder, was called the dedication of a monk who came to be known as the first Dalai Lama, but only until 104 years after his death. Was no resistance, as he was first ordained monks in the tradition of the Kadampa and for various reasons, for hundreds of years in the Kadampa school, instead of adopting a system of Tulkus who is older schools adhere to. Tsongkhapa, in large measure, to his new, reformed Gelugpa tradition of the Kadampa and refrained from starting the system of Tulkus. Therefore, although Gendun Drup grew to be very important Gelug Lama, after his death in 1474, there was no question of any search to identify his incarnation.

Despite this, when the Tashi lhunpo monks began to hear what seemed to be credible reports that the embodiment of Gendun Drup appeared next and repeatedly declared himself from the age of two, their curiosity was aroused. It was about 55 years after Tsongkhapas death. When in the end the monastic authorities had provided convincing evidence that convinced them that the child really was the embodiment of their founder, they considered it their duty to violate its own traditions. In 1487, the boy was renamed and installed Gendun Gyatso in Tashilhunpo as Gendun Drups Tulku, albeit informally.

Gendun Gyatso died in 1542, and the lines of the Dalai Lama Tulku, finally established when the third incarnation, Sonam Gyatso 1543-1588 came out. He made himself known as Gendun Tulku Gyatso was formally recognized and enthroned at Drepung in 1546. When he was given the cover name "Dalai Lama" to snub Altan Khan in 1578, he was also granted in his last two predecessors, and he became known as the third in line.


1.4. History. The 1st Dalai Lama. (1-й Далай-Лама)

The Dalai Lama lineage started from humble beginnings. PEMA Dorje 1391-1474, a boy who was to become the first in line, was born in a cattle paddock in Shabtod, collet in 1391. His parents nomad kept sheep and goats and lived in tents. When his father died in 1398, his mother was unable to support a young shepherd, so she entrusted him to his uncle, a monk Narthang, the main Kadampa monastery near Shigatse, for education as a Buddhist monk. Narthang ran the largest printing house in Tibet and its famous libraries attracted scholars and adepts from afar, so PEMA Dorje was educated beyond the norm at that time, as well as the effects of the various theological schools and ideas. He studied Buddhist philosophy extensively and in 1405, ordained Narthangs Abbot, he took the name of Gendun Drup. Soon recognized as an exceptionally gifted student, the Abbot dealt with him personally, and took particular interest in its development. In 12 years he passed 12 grades of monkhood and took the highest vow. After completing intensive training in Narthang, he went further specialist monasteries in Central Tibet, his ground at Narthang was revered among the many with which he was faced.

In 1415 Gendun Drup met Tsongkhapa, founder of Gelugpa and became his disciple, their meeting was decisive historical and political significance, as it was later to be known as the 1st Dalai Lama. When, in the end, the successors of Tsongkhapas kaydrubjey, the Panchen Lama died, Gendun Drup became the leader of the Gelugpa. He rose to become Abbot of Drepung, the largest Gelugpa monastery outside of Lhasa.

This was mainly due to Gendun Drups energy and ability Tsongkhapas new school turned into the extension being capable to compete with others on equal terms. Taking advantage of good relations with the nobility and the lack of strong opposition from rival orders, on the edge of the Karma Kagyu-dominated territory, he founded the monastery of Tashilhunpo in Shigatse. He was there, and its rector since its founding In 1447 until his death. Tashilhunpo, Mount of blessings, has become the fourth largest monastery of the Gelugpa in Tibet, after Ganden, Drepung and sera was founded during Tsongkhapas. He later became the seat of the Panchen Lama. Setting it to Shigatse in the middle of the collet, it has expanded Gelugpa influence, and his own, from the Lhasa region U in this province that was a stronghold of the Karma Kagyu school and their patrons, the Tsangpa dynasty growth. Tashi lhunpo was destined to become southern Tibets greatest monastic University consisting of 3.000 monks.

Gendun Drup been said that the greatest scholar-Saint, ever created Narthang monastery and became the most important Lama in Tibet. Through hard work he became the leading Lama, better known as the veil with many students. Famous for its Buddhist scholarship was named Panchen Gendun Drup, the target to be an honorary title, meaning great scholar. The great Jonangpa master Bodong Chokley Namgyal, he was awarded the honorary title Tamchey Khyenpa means "Omniscient", a name which was later assigned to all the Dalai Lama incarnations.

At the age of 50 years, he went into a meditation retreat in Narthang. When he became older, the followers of the Karma Kagyu sect of finding them was to lose too many recruits into monasticism with the growing Gelugpa monasteries, trying to contain the spread of Gelug, launching military campaigns against them in the region. This led to decades of military and political struggle for power between the forces of the Tsangpa dynasty and others in Central Tibet. In an attempt to mitigate these collisions, from his retreat Gendun Drup has published a poem of advice to his followers advising restraint to respond to violence with yet more violence, and instead practice compassion and patience. The poem, entitled balloon gang Rima, "song of the mountains East of snow", became one of his most enduring popular works of literature.

Although he was born in the breeding pen to be a simple goatherd, Gendun Drup has risen to become one of the most famous and respected teachers in Tibet and Central Asia. His spiritual achievements brought him generous donations of devotees, he used to build and equip new monasteries, to print and distribute Buddhist texts and to support the monks and the meditators. Finally, at the age of 84 years old, older than any of its 13 successors, in 1474 he went on foot to visit Narthang monastery for the final round. Returning to Tashilhunpo, he died in a blaze of glory, recognized the attainment of Buddhahood.

His mortal remains were buried in a jeweled silver stupa at Tashilhunpo who endured the cultural revolution can still be seen.


1.5. History. The 2nd Dalai Lama. (2-й Далай-Лама)

As the Kadampa, Golovensky eschewed the system of Tulkus. After Gendun Drup died, however, a boy named Sangyey PEL was born in Nyngma adherents Yolkar Tsang, announced a 3 to be "Gendun Drup" and asked to be taken home to Tashilhunpo. He speaks of the mystical poems, to quote classical texts and said he was Dromtonpa, the earlier incarnation of the Dalai Lamas. When he saw the monks from Tashi lhunpo, he welcomed students of the late Gendun Drup named. The elders of the Gelugpa had to break tradition and recognized him as the Tulku Gendun Drups.

When he was 8, but 12, the year his father took him on his teachings and retreats, training him in the family of Nyingma. At 12 he was installed at Tashilhunpo, as Gendun Drups embodiment, consecrated on the throne and renamed Gendun Gyatso Palzangpo 1475-1542.

Taught personally by the Abbot, he made rapid progress, and in 1492 at age 17, he was invited to teach all over the us, where thousands of people gathered to listen and give respect, including leading scholars and abbots. In 1494, at the age of 19 he met some opposition from the Tashi lhunpo creation, when tension arises in the conflict between supporters of the two types of succession, traditional the next election through the merits, and the incarnation. Although he served for several years as Tashilhunpos the Abbot, so he moved to Central Tibet where he was invited to Drepung, where his reputation as a brilliant young teachers quickly grew. He was provided with all the loyalty and devotion that Gendun Drup earned and Gelug school was United as never before. This step was the effect of the displacement of the Central government Gelug back to Lhasa. Under his leadership, the sect continued to grow in size and influence and its appeal of simplicity, devotion and asceticism of his Lama asked to mediate in disputes between other rivals.

Gendun popularity Gyatsos in u-Tsang grew as he went on a pilgrimage, traveling, teaching and studying with such masters as adept Khedrub Norzang Gyatso in the mountains Olklha. He also remained in Kongpo and dagpo and became known throughout Tibet. He spent the winter in Lhasa, write comments and the rest of the year traveling and training many thousands of monks and lay people.

In 1509 he moved to southern Tibet to build Chokorgyel monastery near the lake of the Oracle, Lhamo Latso, completing it in 1511. In the same year he saw visions in the lake, as well as the authority to provide keys to help identify reincarnate lamas. All the Dalai Lama 3 were detected by these visions granted to the Regents. Now widely regarded as one of Tibets greatest saints and scholars, he was invited back to Tashilhunpo. Back in 1512, he was granted a residence built for Gendun Drup to keep you busy later Panchen Lama. He was made Abbot of Tashilhunpo and stayed there as a Professor in CANA for 9 months.

Gendun Gyatso continued to travel and teach, and is based on the largest of Tibets Drepung monastery and became famous as Drepung Lama, his fame and influence throughout Central Asia, as the top student out of hundreds of smaller monasteries in Asia was sent to Drepung for education.

For Hendon Gyatsos life, Ugpa was against and suppressed older rivals, in particular the Karma Kagyu and Ringpung clan patrons from Tsang, who fear for their loss of influence. In 1498 the army Ringpung captured Lhasa and banned Gelugpa annual new years Monlam prayer festival began with Tsongkhapa for peace and prosperity. Gendun Gyatso was appointed as the Abbot of Drepung in 1517 and in the same year Ringpung forces were forced to leave Lhasa. Then Gendun Gyatso went to the King Gongma Drakpa Jungne to obtain a permit for the festival will be held again. The next New year, Gongma was so impressed with Gendun performance Gyatsos the festival, he sponsored the construction of a large new residence for him in Drepung monastery to the monastery. It was called Ganden Phodrang, the name later adopted by Tibetan government, and it was home to the Dalai lamas until the fifth moved to the Potala Palace in 1645.

In 1525, the Abbot already Chokhorgyel, Drepung and Tashi lhunpo, he was made Abbot of the sera monastery, and seeing the number of monks was low, he worked to increase it. Founded in Drepung Chokorgyel in winter and summer, he spent his remaining years in writing the review, regional teaching tour, visit Tashilhunpo from time to time and the acting rector of the four great monasteries. As Abbot, he did Drepung, the largest monastery in Tibet. He attracted many students from Kashmir in China, and the largest patrons and followers, such as Gongma Nangso Donyopa of Droda, who built a monastery on Zhekar Dzong in his honor and invited his behalf and to be his spiritual mentor.

Gongma Gyaltsen Palzangpo of Khyomorlung on Tolung and his Queen Sangyey Paldzomma also became his favourite devoted to secular patrons and students in 1530-ies he visited their district to conduct rituals, since he chose her for his next spawn. He died while meditating at Drepung in 1547 at 67 and his stupa reliquary was built in Khyomorlung. It was said that when he died, through his disciples and their disciples, his personal influence covers the entire Buddhist Central Asia, where there was not any consequences, who dont know about this one.


1.6. History. The 3rd Dalai Lama. (3-й Далай-Лама)

The third Dalai Lama Sonam Gyatso 1543-1588 was born in Tolung, near Lhasa, as predicted by its predecessor. Claiming that he was Gendun Gyatso and willingly remembering the events of his past life, he was recognized as a reincarnation by the name of Sonam Gyatso and installed at Drepung, where he quickly surpassed his teacher in knowledge and wisdom and developed extraordinary powers. Unlike his predecessors, he came from a noble family related to the Sakya and Pagmo the Drup Karma Kagyu dependent dynasties, and it is that efficient conversion of Mongolia to Buddhism because of.

A brilliant scholar and teacher, he possessed the spiritual maturity to be made Abbot of Drepung, taking responsibility for the material and spiritual well-being Tibets largest monastery at the age of nine years. In 10 years, he led the Monlam prayer festival, giving daily discourses to the Assembly of all Gelugpa monks. His influence soon increased so much that the monks at sera monastery also made him their Abbot, and his mediation to prevent clashes between political power groups. In 16 years, in 1559, he was invited to the Nedong king Ngawang Tashi Drakpa, the Karma Kagyu supporter, and became his personal teacher. 17 when the fighting broke out in Lhasa between the Gelug and Kagyu parties and the efforts of local lamas to mediate failed, Sonam Gyatso talks for a peaceful settlement. 19, when the Kyichu river overflowed and flooded Lhasa, he led his followers to the rescue and repair of the dam. Then he introduced the custom that on the last day of Monlam, all the monks were working to strengthen levees for flood protection. Gradually, he began to build himself a national leader. His popularity and prominence was such that in 1564, when the Nedong King died, he was Sonam Gyatso at the age of 21 who have been entrusted with his funeral rites, and not his own lamas of the Kagyu lineage.

You want to travel and teach without respite after a full consecration in 1565, he still maintained an extensive practice meditation in the hours before dawn and again in the late afternoon. In 1569, at the age of 26, he went to Tashilhunpo, to explore the planning and administration of the monastery built by his predecessor Gendun Drup. Invited to become Abbot, he refused, being already Abbot of Drepung and sera, but left there his Deputy in his place. From there he attended Narthang, the first monastery of Gendun Drup and gave numerous discourses and offerings to the monks in gratitude.

Meanwhile, Altan Khan, leader of all Mongol tribes near the border of China, heard about Sonam Gyatsos spiritual prowess and invited him to Mongolia. In 1571, when Altan Khan got the title Shunyi Wang the king of the Ming dynasty in China and swore allegiance to the Ming dynasty, and although he remains de facto quite independent, he has carried out his political destiny and the nephew advised him to seek spiritual salvation, saying that "in Tibet, Avalokitesvara lives", referring to Sonam Gyatso, then 28 years. China was also pleased to help of Altan Khan, providing the necessary translations of the Holy Scriptures, and Lam. On the second invitation, in 1577-78 Sonam Gyatso visited the 1.500 miles to Mongolia to see it. They met in an atmosphere of intense reverence and devotion, and their meeting was the strong recovery of the Tibet-Mongolia relations in 200 years. In Altan Khan named Sonam Gyatso incarnation of Drogon Chogyal Phagpa, and Altan Khan as the city of Kublai, thus placing Khan as successor genghisides, and to secure his patronage. Altan Khan and his followers quickly adopted Buddhism as its state religion, replacing the Banned traditional shamanism. Mongolian legislation has been reformed in accordance with Tibetan Buddhist law. Since that time, Buddhism spread quickly throughout Mongolia and soon won the Gelugpa spiritual allegiance of the majority of Mongolian tribes. Invited Sonam Gyatso, by Altan Khan funded the construction Thegchen Chonkhor a monastery on the place of Sonam Gyatsos under the open sky of the teachings given to all the Mongolian population. He also called Sonam Gyatso "Dalai", the Mongolian for Gyatso ocean.

Thus, the name "Dalai Lama", which later became known pedigree, for the non-Tibetan world, was created and applied to the first two retroactively embodiments.

In the end, he returned to Tibet a circuitous route and were invited to stay and teach along the way, Sonam Gyatso in 1580 was in Hohhot say: just do your prayers, you do not need treatment.


1.7. History. The 9th Dalai Lama. (9-й Далай-Лама)

Born in Kham in 1805 / 6 among the common signs of the ninth Dalai Lama, Gyatso Lungtok was appointed on the 7th Panchen Lama search team at the age of two and enthroned in the Potala in 1808, the ceremony was attended by representatives from China, Mongolia, Nepal and Bhutan. Tibetan historian Nyima Gyaincain and van Jiawei be noted that the 9th Dalai Lama was allowed to use the power until the end of the 8th Dalai Lama, the Emperor of China

His second Regent demo Tulku was the biographer of the 8th and the 9th Dalai Lama, and although the 9th died at the age of 9 years, his biography is as long as many of the early Dalai lamas. In 1793, under pressure of the Manchu Tibet closed its borders to foreigners, but in 1811 the British sinologist Thomas manning became the first Englishman to visit Lhasa. Considered the first Chinese scholar in Europe, he spent five months and given the enthusiasm in his diary of its regular meetings with the ninth Dalai Lama, which he found interesting:" beautiful, elegant, classy, intelligent, and completely self-possessed, even at the age of six years.” Three years later, in March 1815, a young Lungtok Gyatso bad cold and leaving the Potala Palace to preside over the New year Monlam prayer festival he contracted pneumonia, from which he soon died.


1.8. History. 10th Dalai Lama. (10-й Далай-Лама)

As the Dalai Lama, Seventh, tenth, Tsultrim Gyatso, was born in Litan, Kham, where the third Dalai Lama, a monastery was built. It was 1816 and the Regent demo Tulku and the seventh Panchen Lama followed the instructions from Nechung, the state Oracle, who led them to appoint him at the age of two years. He passed all the tests and was brought to Lhasa, but the official recognition was delayed until 1822, when he was elevated to the throne and appointed the seventh Panchen Lama. There are conflicting reports about how Chinese Golden urn was used the lot to select it. 10th Dalai Lama mentioned in his biography that he was allowed to use the Golden seal of authority on the basis of the Convention established at the end of the Dalai Lama. The investiture, by a decree of the Emperor of China was issued and read out. After 15 years of intensive research and failing health, he died in 1837, at the age of 20 or 21. He identified with ordinary people and not officials of the court and often sat on the veranda in the sun with the office clerks. Intending to empower ordinary people, he planned to Institute political and economic reforms, to divide the Nations wealth more equitably. During this time his health worsened, meaning that he may have suffered from a slow poisoning of Tibetan aristocrats, whose interests these reforms were threatening. He was also dissatisfied with the Regent and the Kashag and scolded them for not to alleviate the condition of the ordinary people who suffered much in a small ongoing regional civil wars, which were fought between the Kokonor Mongols, the Tibetans and local governments over the territory, and in Kham, to retrieve unpaid taxes from a rebellious Tibetan communities.


1.9. History. The 11th Dalai Lama. (11-й Далай-Лама)

Born in Gathar, Kham in 1838 and soon found official requests of the Committee with the help of Oracle Nechung, eleventh Dalai Lama was brought to Lhasa in 1841 and recognized, the throne and the name of Khedrub Gyatso by the Panchen Lama in 1842, who also ordained him in 1846. After that, he was immersed in religious study under the Panchen Lama, among other great masters. Meanwhile, there were court intrigues and constant struggle for power between various factions in Lhasa, the Regent, the Kashag, the powerful nobles and abbots and monks of the three great monasteries. In Tsemonling Regent began to doubt, and was forcibly overthrown, there was fraud, conspiracies, beatings and kidnappings of the Ministers and so on, resulting in the last Panchen Lama was appointed as the temporary Regent to preserve the peace. Finally, the third reting Rinpoche was made Regent, and in 1855, Khedrub Gyatso, is extremely promising, were invited to take the reins at the age of 17 years. He was enthroned as ruler of Tibet in 1855, the following order of Emperor Santana. He died after only 11 months, no reason for his sudden and premature death are given in these accounts, Shakabpa and Mullins history as based on the untranslated Tibetan Chronicles. Dear reting Rinpoche was once again reminded to act as Regent and asked to search for the next incarnation, the twelfth.


1.10. History. 12th Dalai Lama. (12-й Далай-Лама)

In 1856 a child was born in South-Central Tibet among all the usual unusual signs. He came to the notice of the search command, was investigated, was a traditional test and was recognized as the 12th Dalai Lama in 1858. The Chinese use of the Golden urn at the insistence of the Regent, who was later accused a Chinese lackey, confirmed this choice to the satisfaction of all. Renamed trinley Gyatso the throne in 1860, the boy went through 13 years of intense tutelage and training before stepping up to rule Tibet in the age of 17.

His minority time seems even deeper Lhasan political intrigues and struggle for power than its predecessors. In 1862 That led to the coup Shetra Wangchuk, Minister of which the Regent was expelled for conspiring against him. Shetra decide to return, the deposed Regent, who fled to China and seized power, appointing himself the desi or the Prime Minister. He then ruled with "absolute power" within three years, the suppression of a major uprising in the Northern province of Kham in 1863 and the restoration of Tibetan control over large Qing spent grounds. Shetra died in 1864 and the Kashag once again came to power. The retired 76-second Ganden Tripa, Khyenrab Wangchuk was appointed Regent, but his role was limited to observation and guidance of trinley Gyatso.

In 1868 Shetras the organizer of the coup, semi-Ganden monk named Palden Dondrup, seized power through another coup and ruled as a cruel despot for three years, putting opponents to death, they are sewn into fresh skins and thrown into the river. In 1871, at the request of the officers are outraged after Dondrup did just that with one Minister and put several people, he, in turn, was deposed and committed suicide after the counter-coup was coordinated by the supposedly powerless Regent Khyenrab Wangchuk. The result of this action, this venerable Regent, who died the following year, remembered by Tibetans As the Savior of the Dalai Lama and the nation. The Kashag and the Tsongdu, or National Assembly was restored and headed by the Dalai Lama or his Regent ruled without further interruption until 1959.

According to Smith, however, trinley Gyatsos minority, the Regent was deposed in 1862 for abuse of power and closeness with China, the Union of monks and officials called Gandre Drungche Ganden and Drepung, the monks of the Assembly, that body then ruled Tibet for ten years, until dissolved, when the National Assembly of monks and officials called Tsongdu was created and took over. Smith does not mention Shetra or Dondrup acting as usurpers and despots in this period.

In any case, trinley Gyatso died within three years after coming to power. In 1873, at the age of 20 years," he suddenly fell ill and died." About the cause of his early death, the accounts diverge. Mullin is interesting theory, based on the quoted Tibetan sources: the care of the monastic tradition, trinley Gyatso has chosen to die and be reborn as the 13th Dalai Lama, and not able to marry a woman by the name Rigma Tsomo from Kokonor and leaving an heir to "supervise Tibets future." Shakabpa on the other hand, not citing sources, notes that, trinley Gyatso was influenced and manipulated by two close friends, who were subsequently charged with his hands in his fatal illness in prison, tortured and exiled as a result.


1.11. History. The 13th Dalai Lama. (13-й Далай-Лама)

The 13th Dalai Lama, assumed ruling power from the monasteries which previously had great influence on the Regent, in 1895. Two of his stay in exile in 1904-1909, to protect the British invasion in 1904, and from 1910 to 1912 to escape a Chinese invasion, he became well aware of the complexities of international politics and was the first Dalai Lama to become aware of the importance of international relations. After his return from exile in India and Sikkim in January, 1913, he assumed control of foreign relations and dealt directly with the Maharaja with the British political officer in Sikkim and the king of Nepal, instead of the Kashag or Parliament do it.

The thirteenth issued the Declaration of independence of his Kingdom in u-Tsang from China in the summer of 1912 and standardised a Tibetan flag, though no other sovereign state recognized Tibetan independence. Scheel 1989, p. 20, he drove the buffet and all Chinese citizens in the country and has introduced many measures to modernise Tibet. These include provisions to curb excessive demands on peasants for provisions in the monasteries and tax evasion with the nobility, independent of the police, the abolition of the death penalty, extension of secular education, provision of electricity throughout the city of Lhasa in the 1920-ies. Norbu & Turnbull 1968, p. 317-318 he died in 1933.


1.12. History. The 14th Dalai Lama. (14-й Далай-Лама)

14th Dalai Lama born 6 July 1935 on straw in a stable, in a family of farmers in a remote part of Tibet. According to most Western journalistic sources, he was born in a poor family of farmers, as one of 16 children. The 14th Dalai Lama was the joint most popular world leader in 2013, tied to Barack Obama, according to a survey conducted by Harris interactive of new York, which included public opinion in the United States and European countries.

The 14th Dalai Lama was not formally enthroned until 17 November 1950, during the battle of chamdo with China. In 1951, the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan government was to put pressure on the adoption of the Seventeen agreement for the peaceful liberation of Tibet in which he became officially incorporated in the PRC. Fearing for their lives after the uprising in Tibet in 1959, the 14th Dalai Lama fled to India, where he headed the government in exile.

To create guerrilla operations against the Chinese, the Central intelligence Agency funded the Dalai Lamas administration for $ 1.7 million. a year in the 1960-ies. In 2001, the 14th Dalai Lama ceded his partial authority over government to an elected Parliament of selected Tibetan exiles. His original goal was full independence for Tibet, but at the end of 1980-ies he was seeking high-level autonomy instead. He continued to seek greater autonomy from China, but dolma Gyari, Deputy speaker of Parliament in exile, said: "If the middle path fails in the short term, we will be forced to choose full independence or self-determination under the UN Charter".

In 2014 and 2016, he said that Tibet wants to be part of China, but China should allow Tibet to preserve their culture and literature.

In 2018, he stated that "Europe belongs to Europeans" and that Europe has a moral obligation to help refugees whose life is in danger. He further stated that Europe needs to adopt, to help and educate refugees, but eventually they must return to develop their country.

In March 2019, the Dalai Lama spoke about his successor, saying that after his death he was most likely reincarnated in India. He also warned that any Chinese intervention in the sequence should not be considered valid.


2. Residence. (Место жительства)

The 1st Dalai Lama was founded in the Tashilhunpo monastery, which he founded, the second to the fifth Dalai Lama was based mainly in the Drepung monastery outside of Lhasa. In 1645, after the unification of Tibet, the fifth moved to the ruins of the fortress or Royal residence on the top of marpori with red Mountain in Lhasa and decided to build a Palace in the same place. This ruined Palace is called Tritse Marpo, was built around 636 ad, the founder of the Tibetan Emperor, Songtsen-gampo for his Nepalese wife. Among the ruins was only a small temple on the left, where Tsongkhapa gave teachings when he arrived in Lhasa in 1380-ies. The fifth Dalai Lama began construction of the Potala Palace on this site in 1645, carefully including what is left of his Palace predecessors in its structure. Since then and until today, except on a tour or in exile the Dalai Lama has always spent his winters at the Potala Palace and the Summer Palace and the Norbulingka Park. Both the Palace in Lhasa and approximately 3 km from each other.

After the failed 1959 Tibetan uprising, the 14th Dalai Lama sought refuge in India. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru allowed the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan government. The Dalai Lama has since lived in exile in McLeod Ganj in the Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh in Northern India, where the Central Tibetan administration is also established. His residence on Temple road in McLeod Ganj called the temple of the Dalai Lama and it is visited by people from around the globe. Tibetan refugees have constructed and opened many schools and Buddhist temples in Dharamsala.


3. Search reincarnation. (Поиск реинкарнации)

In the Himalayan tradition, Phowa is the discipline, which are believed to transmit mad from the supposed body. After the death of the Dalai Lama and consultation with the Oracle Nechung, search of yanxi Lam, or reincarnation, is underway. Traditionally, it was the responsibility of the high Lamas of the Gelug tradition and the Tibetan government to find the man perceived as his reincarnation. The process can take about two or three years to identify the Dalai Lama, and for the 14th, Tenzin Gyatso, it was four years before he was found. Historically, what to look for, the Dalai Lama is usually limited to Tibet, although the third Tulku was born in Mongolia. Tenzin Gyatso, however, has stated that he will not be reborn in the peoples Republic of China, although he also suggested that he may not be reborn at all, suggesting that the functions of the Dalai Lama may be outdated. The PRC government has stated its intention to be the final arbiter in selecting the next Dalai Lama.

The high lamas used several ways in which they can increase the chances of finding a man, they claim that reincarnation. High lamas often visit Lhamo La-TSO, a lake in Central Tibet and watch for a sign from the lake. This can either be claimed a vision or some indication in which direction to look, and it was as Tenzin Gyatso was determined to become the next Dalai Lama. It is said that Palden Lhamo, the female guardian spirit of the sacred lake Lhamo La-TSO promised Gendun Drup, 1st Dalai Lama in one of his visions "that she would protect the line of reincarnation of the Dalai Lamas". Since that time, Gendun Gyatso, the 2nd Dalai Lama, who formalised the system, the Regents and other monks went to the lake to seek guidance on choosing the next reincarnation through visions while meditating there.

A special form of Palden Lhamo at Lhamo La-TSO is Gyelmo Maksorma, "the victorious one who turned enemies." The lake is sometimes called "Kalideva Palden Lhamo", which was taken as a basis to argue that Palden Lhamo is an incarnation of the goddess Kali, the Shakti of the Hindu God Shiva.

Lhamo Latso. a brilliant azure jewel set in a ring of grey mountains. The elevation and the surrounding peaks combine to give it a highly changeable climate, and the continuous passage of cloud and wind creates a constantly moving surface of the water. On that surface visions appear to those who seek them in the right mood.

It was here that in 1935, the Regent reting Rinpoche claimed to have received a clear vision of three Tibetan letters and of a monastery with a jade-green and gold roof, and a house with turquoise roof tiles, which led to the indication of Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama.

High lamas may also qualify for a vision, a dream or if the Dalai Lama was cremated, they will often monitor the direction of the smoke as an indication of the direction of the expected revival.

Once the high lamas have found the home and the boy they believe to be the reincarnation, the boy undergoes tests, to officially legalize revival. They represent a number of artifacts, only some of which belonged to the previous Dalai Lama and if the boy chooses the items that belonged to the previous Dalai Lama, this is seen as a sign, combined with all other claimed indications that the boy is the reincarnation.

If there is only one boy found, high lamas will invite living Buddhas of the three great monasteries and the clergy, the monk officials, to confirm their findings and then tell the Central government through the Minister of Tibet. Later, the group, consisting of the three major servants of Dalai Lama, eminent officials and troops will collect the boy and his family and travel to Lhasa, where the boy would be taken, usually to Drepung monastery to study the Buddhist Sutra in preparation for the adoption of the role of the spiritual leader of Tibet.

If there are several possible claimed reincarnations, however, Regents, eminent officials, monks at the Jokhang in Lhasa, and the Minister to Tibet historically decided on the individual by putting the boys names inside an urn and drawing one lot in public if it was too difficult to judge the reincarnation initially.


3.1. Search reincarnation. List the Dalai Lama. (Далай-Лама список)

Been 14 recognised incarnations of the Dalai Lama:

There is also one not recognised the Dalai Lama, Gavan Yeshe Gyatso, declared 28 June 1707, when he was 25 years old, LGK-bzang Khan as the "true" 6th Dalai Lama – however, he was never accepted as such by the majority of the population.


4. The future position of the. (Будущее положение)

In the mid-1970s, Tenzin Gyatso told a Polish newspaper that he thought he would be the last Dalai Lama. In a later interview published in the English-language press he stated that "the Dalai Lama office of the institution established for the benefit of others. It is possible that it will soon have outlived its usefulness". These statements caused a furor amongst Tibetans in India. Many could not believe that such an option would even be considered. In addition, it was agreed that this is not the decision of the Dalai Lamas reincarnate. On the contrary, they believed that because the Dalai Lama is a national institution it was up to the people of Tibet to decide whether the Dalai Lama should reincarnate.

The government of the peoples Republic of China, the PRC claimed the power to approve the names "high" reincarnation in Tibet, relying on the precedent set by the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty. Emperor Qianlong created the system of selecting the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama by a lottery that used a Golden urn with names wrapped in clumps of barley. This method has been used several times for both positions in the course of the 19th century, but eventually fell into disrepair. In 1995 the Dalai Lama chose to proceed with the selection of the 11th reincarnation of the Panchen Lama without the use of the Golden urn, while the Chinese government insists that it should be used. This led to two rival Panchen Lamas: Gyaincain Norbu on the choice of the Chinese government, and Gedun Chokyi Nyima as chosen by the Dalai Lama.

In September 2007, the Chinese government said all high monks must be approved by the government, which will include the selection of the 15th Dalai Lama after the death of Tenzin Gyatso. As by tradition, the Panchen Lama must approve the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama that this is another possible method of control. Therefore, the Dalai Lama has hinted at the possibility of holding a referendum to determine the 15th Dalai Lama.

In response to this scenario, Tashi Wangdi, the representative of the 14th Dalai Lama said that the Chinese governments selection would be meaningless. "You cant impose an Imam, an Archbishop, saints, any cant politically impose these things on people," said Wangdi. "This must be the solution to the followers of this tradition. The Chinese can use political power: force. Again, meaningless. Like their Panchen Lama. And they cant keep their Panchen Lama in Tibet. They tried to bring him to the monastery many times, but people dont see it. How can you have a religious leader like that?"

The 14th Dalai Lama said as early as 1969 that it was for the Tibetans to decide whether the Institute of the Dalai Lama "should continue or not." He gave a link to a possible vote happening in the future for all Tibetan Buddhists to decide whether they wish to recognize his rebirth. In response to the possibility that the PRC may attempt to choose his successor, the Dalai Lama said that will not be born in a country controlled China or any other country that is not free. According to Robert D. Kaplan, this could mean that "the next Dalai Lama might come from the Tibetan cultural belt that stretches across Northern India, Nepal and Bhutan, presumably making him even more Pro-Indian and anti-Chinese".

The 14th Dalai Lama supported the possibility that his next incarnation could be a woman. As "engaged Buddhist," the Dalai Lamas appeal to cross-border cultures and political systems, making it one of the most recognized and respected moral voice. "Despite the complex historical, religious and political factors related to the election of incarnate masters in the exiled Tibetan tradition, the Dalai Lama is open to change," author Michelle Haas says. "Why not? Whats the big deal?"

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