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Alexander the Great - deified people. Alexander III of Macedon, known as Alexander the Great, was king of ancient Greek Kingdom of Macedon and a member of th ..



Alexander the Great
                                     

Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon, known as Alexander the Great, was king of ancient Greek Kingdom of Macedon and a member of the argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of 20 years. He spent most of his reign years on an unprecedented military campaign in Asia and northeast Africa, and at the age of thirty years, he created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. He was undefeated in battle and considered one of historys most successful commanders.

In his youth Alexander was tutored Aristotle to the age of 16. After killing Phillips in 336 BC he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong Kingdom and experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his fathers Greek project lead the Greeks to the conquest of Persia. In 334 BC he invaded Persian Achaemenid Empire and began a series of campaigns that lasted 10 years. After the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, particularly the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian king Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in full. At this point, his Empire stretched from the Adriatic sea to the river Beas.

Alexander wanted to reach the "end of the world and the great outer sea" and invaded India in 326 BC, having won an important victory over the Pauravas in the battle of Hydaspes. In the end he turned back at the request of his troops were homesick, dying in Babylon in 323 BC, the city he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years after his death, a series of civil wars tore his Empire apart, resulting in the established several States ruled by the diadochi, Alexanders surviving generals and heirs.

Alexandrovs legacy includes the cultural diffusion and syncretism that gave birth to conquests, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, especially Alexandria in Egypt. Alexanders settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the East resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization, aspects of which are still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century ad and the presence of Greek language in the Central and far Eastern Anatolia until the 1920s. Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the form of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythical traditions from both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, and military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. He often is among the most influential people in history.

                                     

1.1. Early life. Origin and childhood. (Происхождение и детство)

Alexander was born in Pella, the capital of the Macedonian Kingdom, on the sixth day ancient Greek month Hekatombaion, which probably corresponds to 20 July 356 BC, Although the exact date is uncertain. He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II and his fourth wife, the Olympics, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his chief wife for some time, probably because she gave birth to Alexander.

Many legends surround the Alexandra birth and childhood. According to the ancient Greek biographer Plutarch, on the eve of the entry of her marriage with Philip, Olympias dreamed that her womb was struck by lightning, which caused the flame spreading "far and wide" before dying. Some time after the wedding, Philip was said he saw himself in a dream, securing his wifes womb with a seal engraved with the image of lions. Plutarch offered a variety of interpretations of these dreams: that Olympias was pregnant before her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb, or that Alexanders father was Zeus. Ancient commentators were divided about whether the ambitious Olympias promulgated the story of Alexanders divine parentage, variously claiming that she had told Alexander, or that she dismissed the suggestion impious.

The other day Alexander was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the Peninsula of Chalcidice. On the same day, Philip received news that his General Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies and his horses won at the Olympic games. It was also said that on this day, the temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the seven wonders of the world, burned. This led Hegesias of magnesia to say that it burnt down because Artemis was away, attending the birth of Alexander. These legends emerged when Alexander was king, and possibly at his initiative to show that he was superhuman and destined for greatness from conception.

In his youth Alexander was raised by a nurse, Lanike, sister of Alexandra, the future General cleitus black. Later in his childhood Alexander was tutored strict Leonidas, a relative of his mother, and Lysimachus of Acarnania. Alexander was brought up in the spirit of noble Macedonian youths, learning to read, play the lyre, ride, fight and hunt.

When Alexander was ten years old, a trader from Thessaly brought Philip a horse, which he offered to sell for thirteen talents. The horse refused to be mounted and Philip ordered it. Alexander however, detecting the horses fear of its own shadow, asked to tame the horse, which he eventually did. Plutarch stated that Philip, overjoyed at this display of courage and ambition, kissed him tearfully in the eyes of his son, saying: "my boy, you must find a Kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Macedonia is too small for you", and bought the horse for him. Alexander named it Bucephalas, meaning "ox-head". Bucephalas carried Alexander to India. When the animal died, Alexander named a city after him, Bucephala.

                                     

1.2. Early life. Education. (Образование)

When Alexander was 13, Philip began to search for a tutor, and considered such scientists as Isocrates and Speusippus, the latter proposes to abandon the leadership of the Academy to take up the post. In the end, Philip chose Aristotle and provided the temple of the nymphs at Mieza as a classroom. In return for teaching Alexander, Philip agreed to rebuild the hometown of Aristotle in Stagira, which Philip had razed, and to repopulate it by buying and freeing the ex citizens who were slaves, or pardoning those who were in exile.

Mieza was like a boarding school for children of Macedonian nobles, such as Ptolemy, Hephaistion, and Cassander. Many of these students would become his friends and future generals, and are often known as associates. Aristotle taught Alexander and his companions about medicine, philosophy, morals, religion, logic and art. Under the guidance of Aristotle, Alexander developed a passion for the works of Homer and in particular the Iliad; Aristotle gave him an annotated copy, which Alexander later carried on his campaigns.

In his youth Alexander was familiar with the Persian exiles at the Macedonian court, which received the protection of Philip II for several years, as they are against Artaxerxes III. Among them was Artabazos II and his daughter Barsine, the future mistress of Alexander, who lived at the Macedonian court from 352 to 342 BC, as well as Amminapes, the future Satrap of Alexander, or the Persian nobleman by the name of Sisines. This gave the Macedonian court a good knowledge of Persian questions, and maybe even influenced some innovations in the management of the Macedonian state.

The court wrote that also, Anaximenes of Lampsacus was one of his teachers. Anaximene, and accompanied him in the campaigns.

                                     

2.1. The Heir To Philips. Regency and ascent of Macedon. (Регентство и подъем Македонского)

At age 16, Alexanders education under Aristotle of the composition. Philip waged war against byzantion, leaving Alexander in charge as Regent and heir. During the absence of Phillips, the Thracian honeys revolted against Macedonia. Alexander responded quickly, driving them from their territory. He colonized it with Greeks, and founded a city named Alexandroupolis.

For Phillips to return, he sent Alexander with a small force to subdue revolts in southern Thrace. Campaigning against the Greek city of Perinthus, Alexander is reported to have saved his life of the fathers. Meanwhile, the city began to work with can taste delicious dishes of the earth that were sacred to Apollo near Delphi, a sacrilege that gave Philip the opportunity to further intervene in Greek Affairs. Still occupied in Thrace, he ordered Alexander to muster an army for a campaign in southern Greece. Concerned that other Greek States might intervene, Alexander made it look as though he was preparing to attack Illyria. During this turmoil, the Illyrians invaded Macedonia, only repelled by Alexander.

Philip and his army joined his son in 338 BC, and they marched South through Thermopylae, taking it after stubborn resistance from the Theban garrison. They went to the occupation of the city of Elatea, only a few days March from both Athens and Thebes. The Athenians, led by Demosthenes, voted to seek Alliance with Thebes against Macedonia. Athens and Philip sent embassies to win Thebes favor, but Athens won the contest. Philip moved to can enjoy incredibly delicious food, allegedly acting at the request Amphictyony, capturing the mercenaries sent there by Demosthenes and accepting the city to surrender. Philip then returned to Elatea, sending a final offer of peace to Athens and Thebes, which had rejected him.

As Philip marched South, his opponents blocked him near Chaeronea, Boeotia. In the ensuing battle of Chaeronea, Philip commanded the right wing and Alexander the left, accompanied by groups of Philips trusted generals. According to ancient sources, the two sides fought fiercely for some time. Philip deliberately commanded his troops to retreat, counting on the untested Athenian hoplites to follow, thus breaking their line. Alexander was the first to break the Theban lines, and then from Philips generals. Damaging the enemys cohesion, Philip ordered his troops to move forward and quickly got rid of them. With the Athenians lost, the Thebans were surrounded. Left to fight alone, they were defeated.

After the victory at Chaeronea, Philip and Alexander marched unopposed into the Peloponnese welcomed by all cities, however, when they reached Sparta, they were refused, but not to resort to war. At Corinth, Philip established a "Hellenic Alliance" modeled on the old anti Persian Alliance of the Greco-Persian wars, which included most Greek city-States except Sparta. Philip was then named hegemon often translated as "Supreme Commander" in this League known to modern scholars as the League of Corinth, and announced his intention to attack the Persian Empire.



                                     

2.2. The Heir To Philips. Exile and return. (Изгнание и возвращение)

When Philip returned to Pella, he fell in love and married Eurydice in 338 BC, Cleopatra, the niece of his General Attalus. The marriage of Alexandras position as heir less secure, since any son of Cleopatra Eurydice would be a fully Macedonian heir, while Alexander was only half Macedonian. During the wedding Banquet, a drunken Attalus publicly prayed to the Gods that the Union would produce a legitimate heir.

At the wedding of Cleopatra, whom Philip fell in love and married, she being too young for him, her uncle Attalus in his drink desired that the Macedonians would implore the gods to give them a lawful successor to the Kingdom by his niece. This so irritated Alexander, that throwing one of the cups on his head, "you villain," said he, "what, am I then a bastard?" Then Philip, taking Attaluss part, got up and ran to his son, but fortunately for both of them, or his hasty rage, or the wine he had drunk, made his foot slip, so that he fell to the floor. At which Alexander reproachfully, abused him: "Look there," he said, "man, who is preparing to pass from Europe into Asia, overturned in passing from one place to another".

In 337 BC, Alexander fled Macedon with his mother, seeing her with his brother, Tsar Alexander I of Epirus in Dodona, capital of the Molossus. He continued to Illyria, where he sought refuge with one or more of the Illyrian kings, perhaps with Glaukias, and treated him as a guest, despite the fact that defeated them in battle a few years ago. However, it appears Philip never intended to disown his political and military training of his son. Accordingly, Alexander returned to Macedon after six months due to the efforts of a family friend, Demaratus, who mediated between the two parties.

Next year, the Governor of the Persian Satrap of Caria, Pixodarus, offered his eldest daughter to Alexanders half brother Philip Arrida. Olympias and several of Alexanders friends suggested this showed Philip Arrida had intended to make his heir. Alexander reacted by sending an actor, Thessalus of Corinth, to tell Pixodarus that he should not offer his daughters hand to an illegitimate son, and Alexander. When Philip heard of this, he stopped the negotiations and scolded Alexander for wishing to marry the daughter of a Carian, explaining that he wanted the best for his bride. Philip exiled four of Alexanders friends, like harpalus, Nearchus, Ptolemy and Erigyius, and the Corinthians bring Thessalus to him in chains.

                                     

3.1. The King Of Macedon. Joining. (Присоединение)

In the summer of 336 BC, while at Aegae attending the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra with Olympiass brother, Alexander I of Epirus, Philip was assassinated by the captain of his bodyguards, Pausanias. As Pausanias tried to escape, he tripped over a vine and was killed by his pursuers, including two of Alexanders companions, Perdiccas and Leonnatus. Alexander was proclaimed king in the place of the nobles and army at the age of 20 years.

                                     

3.2. The King Of Macedon. Consolidation of power. (Консолидация власти)

Alexander began his reign by eliminating potential rivals to the throne. He was his cousin, the former Amyntas IV, executed. He also had two Macedonian princes from the region of Lyncestis killed, but spared a third, Alexander Lyncestes. Olympias, Cleopatra Eurydice and Europe, daughter of Philip, were burned alive. When Alexander learned about this, he was furious. Alexander also ordered the murder of Attalus, who commanded the vanguard of the army in Asia Minor and Cleopatras uncle.

Attalus was at that time corresponding with Demosthenes, regarding the possibility of the escape to Athens. Attali also severely insulted Alexander, and after the murder of Cleopatra, Alexander may have considered him too dangerous to leave alive. Alexander spared Arrida, which by all indications, mentally disabled, possibly as a result of poisoning by Olympias.

The news of the death of Phillips roused many States into revolt, including Thebes, Athens, Thessaly, and the Thracian tribes North of Macedon. When news of the revolts reached Alexander, he responded quickly. Though advised to use diplomacy, Alexander the great gathered a cavalry of 3.000 and rode South towards Thessaly. He found the Thessalian army occupying the pass between mount Olympus and mount Ossa, and ordered his men to go to mount Ossa. When the thessalians awoke the next day, they found Alexander in their rear, and quickly surrendered, adding their cavalry to alexanders force. He then continued South towards the Peloponnese.

Alexander stopped at Thermopylae, where he was recognized as the leader Amphictyony before heading South to Corinth. Athens sued for peace and Alexander pardoned the rebels. The famous meeting between Alexander and Diogenes the cynic occurred during Alexanders stay in Corinth. When Alexander asked Diogenes what he could do for him, the philosopher disdainfully asked Alexander to stand a little apart, as it blocks sunlight. The answer, apparently, was delighted Alexander, who is reported to have said: "Verily, if I were not Alexander I would be Diogenes". At Corinth Alexander took the title of hegemon "leader" and, like Philip, was appointed commander for the coming war against Persia. He also received news of a Thracian uprising.



                                     

3.3. The King Of Macedon. The Balkan campaign. (Балканской кампании)

Before crossing to Asia, Alexander wanted to safeguard the Northern border. In the spring of 335 BC, he advanced to suppress several revolts. Starting from Amphipolis, he traveled East into the country of the "independent Thracians", and at mount Haemus, the Macedonian army attacked and defeated the Thracian troops stationed on the heights. The Macedonians marched into the country of the Triballi, and defeated their army near the river Lyginus a tributary of the Danube. Then Alexander marched three days to the Danube, encountering the Getae tribe on the opposite shore. Crossing the river by night, he surprised them and forced their army to retreat after the first cavalry skirmish.

Then the news reached Alexander, cleitus, King of Illyria, and king Glaukias of the Taulantii were in open rebellion against his authority. Marching West into Illyria, Alexander defeated each in turn, forcing the two rulers to flee with his troops. With these victories, he secured his Northern border.

While Alexander campaigned North, the Thebans and Athenians rebelled once more. Alexander immediately headed South. But in the other cities again hesitated, Thebes decided to fight. The Theban resistance was ineffective, and Alexander destroyed the city and divide its territory between the other cities of Boeotia. The end of Thebes cowed Athens, leaving all of Greece temporarily at peace. Alexander while on his Asian campaign, leaving Antipater as Regent.

According to ancient writers Demosthenes called Alexander "Margites" Greek: Μαργίτης and a boy. The Greeks used the word to describe Margites stupid and useless people, on account of the Margites.

                                     

4.1. The conquest of the Persian Empire. Asia Minor. (Малой Азии)

In 336 BC Phillip II sent Parmenio, with Amyntas, and Attalus Andromenes, and an army of 10.000 men to Anatolia to make preparations for an invasion to free the Greeks living on the West coast and the Islands from the rule of the Akhemenids. At first all went well. Greek city on the Western coast of Anatolia rose up, until the news came that Philip was assassinated and was succeeded by his son Alexander. The Macedonians were demoralized by the death of Philips and subsequently was defeated at magnesia by the Achaemenids, under the command of mercenaries Memnon of Rhodes.

Taking for the intrusion of the project of Philip II, Alexanders army crossed the Hellespont in 334 BC about 48.100 soldiers, 6.100 cavalry and a fleet of 120 ships with crews numbering of 38.000, drawn from Macedon and various Greek city-States, mercenaries, and feudally raised soldiers from Thrace, Paionia, and Illyria. He showed his intent to conquer the entire Persian Empire by throwing a spear into Asian soil and saying he accepted Asia as a gift from the gods. It also demonstrated the desire of Alexander to the battle, unlike his fathers preference for diplomacy.

After the first victory over the Persian troops in the battle of the Granicus, Alexander accepted the surrender of the Persian provincial Treasury and Sardis, and then he proceeded along the coast of the Ionian sea, the granting of autonomy and democracy in the city. Miletus, held by the Achaemenid requires a delicate operation of siege, with the Persian naval forces nearby. Further South, Halicarnassus, in Caria, Alexander successfully led their first large-scale sieges, eventually forcing his opponents, the mercenary captain Memnon of Rhodes and the Persian Satrap of Caria, Orontobates, to withdraw by sea. Alexander left the government of Caria to a member of the Hecatomnid dynasty, Ada, who adopted Alexander.

From Halicarnassus, Alexander proceeded into mountainous Lycia and the Pamphylian plain, exercising control over all coastal cities to deny the Persians naval bases. From Pamphylia year, the coast held no major ports and Alexander moved in. At Termessos, Alexander humbled but did not storm the city of M. And it. At the Ancient Phrygian capital of gordius, Alexander "undid" the hitherto unsolvable Gordian knot, a feat said to wait for a future "king of Asia". In the story, Alexander has announced that it does not matter how the knot was unfastened and hacked him to pieces with his sword.

                                     

4.2. The conquest of the Persian Empire. The Levant and Syria. (Леванта и Сирии)

In the spring of 333 BC, Alexander crossed the Taurus into Cilicia. After a long pause due to illness, he went to Syria. Although outmanoeuvered Darius a much greater army, he moved back to Cilicia, where he defeated Darius at Issus. Darius fled the battle, causing his army to collapse, and left behind a wife, two daughters, mother Sisygambis, and a fabulous treasure. He offered a peace Treaty that included the lands he had already lost and a ransom of 10.000 talents for his family. Alexander replied that since he was now king of Asia, he was the one who decided territorial divisions. Alexander proceeded to take possession of Syria, and much of the coast of the Levant. The following year, 332 BC, he was forced to attack tyre, which he captured after a long and difficult siege. Men of military age were killed and the women and children sold into slavery.

                                     

4.3. The conquest of the Persian Empire. Egypt. (Египет)

When Alexander destroyed tyre, most of the cities on the route to Egypt quickly capitulated. However, Alexander met resistance in Gaza. The castle was heavily fortified and built on a hill, requiring a siege. When "his engineers pointed out to him that because of the height of the mound will be impossible. this prompted Alexander all the more to make the attempt". After three unsuccessful assaults, the fortress fell but not before Alexander received a serious wound in the shoulder. As in tyre, men of military age were put to the sword, and women and children sold into slavery.

Alexander advanced on Egypt in 332 BC, the Later where he was regarded as a liberator. He was declared the son of the deity Amun Oracle in Siwa oasis in the Libyan desert. Henceforth, Alexander often referred to Zeus-Ammon as his true father, and after his death, shows the currency it was decorated with the horns of Ammon as a symbol of His divinity. During his stay in Egypt, he founded Alexandria-by-Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after his death.



                                     

4.4. The conquest of the Persian Empire. Assyria and Babylonia. (Ассирии и Вавилонии)

Leaving Egypt in 331 BC, Alexander moved East into Mesopotamia now in Northern Iraq, and again defeated Darius at the battle of Gaugamela. Darius again fled the field, and Alexander chased him as Arbela. Gaugamela would be the last and decisive battle between the two. Darius fled over the mountains to Ecbatana, modern Hamadan, while Alexander captured Babylon.

                                     

4.5. The conquest of the Persian Empire. Persia. (Персии)

From Babylon Alexander went to Susa, one of the Achaemenid capitals, and captured its Treasury. He sent most of his army to the Persian ceremonial capital of Persepolis via the Persian Royal road. Alexander himself took selected troops from the direct route to the city. Then he stormed the pass of the Persian gates in the modern Zagros mountains, which was blocked by a Persian army under Ariobarzanes and then hurried to Persepolis before its garrison could loot the Treasury.

On entering Persepolis, Alexander allowed his troops to plunder the city for several days. Alexander stayed in Persepolis for five months. During his stay a fire broke out in the Eastern Palace of Xerxes I and spread to the rest of the city. Possible causes: a drunken accident or deliberate revenge for the burning of the Athenian Acropolis during the second Persian war with Xerxes, Plutarch and Diodorus say that Alexandrov satellite, hetaera Tais, provoked and fanned the flames. Even as he watched the city burn, Alexander immediately regretted my decision. Plutarch claims that he ordered his men to put out the fire, but the flames had already spread to most of the city. Curtius claims that Alexander does not regret his decision until the next morning. Plutarch tells an anecdote in which Alexander pauses and talks about a fallen statue of Xerxes, as if it were a living person:

Should I pass and leave you lying there because of the expedition you led against Greece, or I love you again because of your magnanimity and your virtues in other respects?

                                     

4.6. The conquest of the Persian Empire. The fall of the Empire and the East. (Падение Империи и Востока)

Alexander then chased Darius, first into media, and then Parthia. The Persian king no longer controlled his own destiny, and was taken prisoner by Bessus, his Bactrian Satrap and kinsman. Alexander approached, Bessus had his men fatally wounded the Great King and then declared himself Darius successor Xerxes, as in, before retreating into Central Asia to begin a guerrilla campaign against Alexander. Alexander buried Darius remains next to his Achaemenid predecessors in a Regal funeral. He claimed that, while dying, Darius had named him as his successor to the Achaemenid throne. The Achaemenid Empire is normally considered to have fallen with Darius.

Alexander viewed Bess as a usurper and set out to defeat him. This campaign, initially against Bessus, turned into a Grand tour of Central Asia. Alexander founded several new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan and Alexandria Eschatos "far" in modern Tajikistan. The campaign took Alexander through media, Parthia, Aria West of Afghanistan, Drangiana, Arachosia, South and Central Afghanistan, Bactria, the Northern and Central parts of Afghanistan, and Scythia.

In 329 BC and Spitamenes, who held an undefined position in the satrapy of Sogdiana, betrayed Bess to Ptolemy, one of Aleksandrov reliable partners, and Bess was executed. However, when, at some point later, Alexander was on the Jaxartes dealing with the invasion of the horse nomad army, Spitamenes of Sogdiana revolted. Alexander personally defeated the Scythians at the battle of Jaxartes and immediately launched a campaign against Spitamenes, defeating him in the battle of gabai. After the defeat, Spitamenes was killed by his people, who then sued for peace.

                                     

4.7. The conquest of the Persian Empire. Problems and plots. (Проблемы и сюжеты)

During this time, Alexander adopted some elements of Persian dress and customs at his court, in particular the custom of proskynesis, either a symbolic kissing of the hand, or prostration on the fact that the Persians showed their social superiors. The Greeks regarded the gesture as the province of the gods and believed that Alexander meant to deify himself by requiring it. It cost him the sympathy of many of his countrymen, and in the end he abandoned it.

Had uncovered a plot against his life, and one of his officers, Philotas, was executed for failing to alert Alexander. Death requires the death of his father, and thus Parmenion, who was charged with guarding the Treasury at Ecbatana, was assassinated by command of Alexander, to prevent attempts at vengeance. The sad thing is, Alexander personally killed the man who saved his life at Granicus, cleitus the Black, during a violent drunken altercation in Marakand in Samarkand in modern Uzbekistan, in which he accused Alexander cleitus few to condemn the errors, and especially those who have forgotten the Macedonian party in favour of a corrupt Oriental lifestyle.

Later, in the Central Asian campaign, a second plot against his life was revealed, this is triggered by his own Royal pages. His official historian, Callisthenes of Olynthus, was implicated in the conspiracy, and the Anabasis of Alexander, Arrian States that Callisthenes and the pages were then tortured on the rack, as a punishment, and probably died soon after. It remains unclear if Callisthenes was actually involved in the conspiracy to his charge, he fell out of favor, leading the opposition to the attempt to introduce proskynesis.

                                     

4.8. The conquest of the Persian Empire. Alexander the great in the absence of. (Александр Македонский в отсутствие)

When Alexander determined for Asia, he left his General Antipater, an experienced military and political leader and part of Philip IIS "old guard", in charge of the division of the Macedonian. Alexanders sacking of Thebes assured that Greece remained quiet during his absence. The only exception was a call to arms for the Spartan king Agis III in 331 BC, whom Antipater defeated and killed in battle with ghosts. Antipater gave the Spartans the punishment to the League of Corinth, which then deferred to Alexander, who decided to pardon them. There is also considerable friction between Antipater and Olympias, and each complained to Alexander about the other.

In General, Greece is experiencing a period of peace and prosperity during the campaign of Alexander in Asia. Alexander sent back vast sums from his conquest, which stimulated the economy and increased trade across his Empire. However, Aleksandrov constant demands for troops and the migration of Macedonians throughout his Empire depleted Macedons power, greatly weakening it in the years after Alexander, and ultimately led to its conquest by Rome after the third Macedonian war 171-168 BC

                                     

5.1. The Indian campaign. Forays into the Indian subcontinent. (Вылазки в Индийском субконтиненте)

After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage to Roxana Raoxshna in the Old Iran to strengthen relations with his new satrapies, Alexander turned to the Indian subcontinent. He invited the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara in the region at present, cross-border Eastern Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan, to come to him and submit to his authority. Omphis Indian name Ambhi, ruler of Taxila, whose Kingdom extended from the Indus to the Jhelum Hydaspes, complied, but the chieftains of some of the mountain clans, including the Aspasioi and Assakenoi sections of the Kambojas known in Indian texts also as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas, refused to obey. Ambhi hastened to release Alyaksandr his arrest and met him with valuable presents, placing at his disposal all his strength. Alexander not only returned Ambhi his title and the gifts but he also presented a wardrobe of "Persian robes, gold and silver ornaments, 30 horses and 1000 talents in gold". Alexander was emboldened to divide his forces, and Ambhi help hephaestion and Perdiccas in constructing a bridge over the Indus where it bends at Hund, supplied the troops with provisions, and received Alexander himself, and his whole army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstration of friendship and the most liberal hospitality.

On further advance of the Macedonian king, Taxiles accompanied him with a force of 5.000 men and took part in the battle on the river Hydaspes. After this victory he was sent by Alexander in pursuit of long in which he was instructed to offer favorable conditions, but narrowly escaped death at the hands of his old enemy. Subsequently, however, the two rivals were eliminated by the personal mediation of Alexander, and Taxiles, after the contribution zealously to the equipment of the fleet on the Hydaspes, was entrusted by the king with the government on the entire territory between the river and ind. Purely power was given to him after the death of Philip, son of Machatas, and he was allowed to keep his power in the death of Alexander the great 323 BC, and in the subsequent partition of the provinces at Triparadisus, 321 BC.

In the winter of 327 326 BC, Alexander personally led a campaign against the Aspasioi of Kunar valleys, Guraeans Guraeus valley, and the Assakenoi of the SWAT valley and Buner/. A fierce contest ensued with the Aspasioi in which Alexander was wounded in the shoulder by a dart but in the end the Aspasioi lost. Alexander then faced the Assakenoi, who fought against him from the strongholds of Massaga, Ora and Aornos.

The Fort of Massaga was reduced only after days of bloody fighting in which Alexander was wounded seriously in the ankle. According to Curtius, "not only did Alexander slaughter the entire population of Massaga, but also it will reduce your buildings to rubble." A similar slaughter followedor. After Massaga and Ora, numerous Assakenians fled to the fortress of Aornos. Alexander was walking nearby and captured the strategic hill-Fort after four bloody days.

After Aornos, Alexander crossed the Indus and defeated in an epic battle against king Porus, who ruled in the region lying between the Hydaspes and Acesines, the Chenab, in the Punjab, in the battle of Hydaspes in 326 BC. Alexander was struck by Poruss bravery and made him an ally. He appointed Porus as Satrap, and added to Porus the land area that it previously didnt own, according to the direction of the South-East, up to the Hyphasis Beas. Choosing a local helped him control these lands so distant from Greece. Alexander founded two cities on opposite banks of the Hydaspes river, naming one Bucephala, in honor of his horse, who died around this time. The other was the victory of Nicaea, thought to be located on the site of the modern Mong, Punjab. The elder philostratus in life of Apollonius of Tyana writes that the armys time there was an elephant, who fought bravely against the army of Alexander and Alexander dedicated it to Helios the Sun, and called it "Ajax" because he thought he was so cool animal deserves a great name. Elephant gold rings around its tusks and an inscription was on them written in Greek: "Alexander, son of Zeus dedicates Ajax to the Helios" ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ Ο ΤΟΝ ΔΙΟΣ ΑΙΑΝΤΑ ΤΩΙ ΗΛΙΩΙ.

                                     

5.2. The Indian campaign. The uprising in the army. (Восстания в армии)

Porus East of the Kingdom, near the Ganges river, were the Nanda Empire of Magadha and further East the Gangaridai Empire of Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. Fearing the prospects for other large armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, Alexanders army mutinied at the Beas Hyphasis river, refusing to March further East. Thus, this river marks the Eastern extent of the conquests of Alexander.

As for the Macedonians, however, their struggle with Porus blunted their courage and stayed their further progress into India. For what they could do to repulse an enemy who has collected only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which, as they learned, was thirty two Furlong, its depth a hundred fathoms, while the banks on the opposite side was covered with many soldiers and horsemen and elephants. They said that the kings Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand foot, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand fighting elephants.

Alexander tried to persuade his soldiers to March farther, characterized by a violent development but the General begged him to change his mind and return, men, he said, "longed to again see their parents, their wives and children, their Homeland". Alexander eventually agreed and turned South, marching along the Indus. Along the way his army conquered the Malhi in the modern Multan and other Indian tribes and Alexander was injured during the siege.

Alexander sent most of his army to Carmania, the modern southern Iran, with a total crater, and directed the expedition on the Persian Gulf shore under his Admiral Nearchus, when he led the rest back to Persia through the more difficult southern route along the Gedrosian desert and Makran. Alexander reached Susa in 324 BC, but not before losing many men to the harsh desert.

                                     

6. In the last years in Persia. (В последние годы в Персии)

Discovering that many of his satraps and military governors had misbehaved in his absence, Alexander executed several of them as examples on his way to Susa. As a gesture of thanks, he paid the debts of his soldiers, and announced that he will send for aged and disabled veterans back to Macedonia, headed by the crater. His troops understood his intention and mutinied at the town of Opis. They refused to be sent away and criticized his approval of the Persian customs and dress and the introduction of Persian officers and soldiers into Macedonian units.

After three days, unable to persuade his men to back down, Alexander gave Persians command posts in the army and conferred Macedonian military titles upon Persian units. The Macedonians quickly begged forgiveness, which Alexander accepted, and held a great Banquet for several thousand people, in which he and they ate together. In an attempt to create lasting harmony between his Macedonian and Persian subjects, Alexander held a mass marriage of his senior officers to Persian and other noblewomen who are in Susa, but few of those marriages seem to have lasted many more years. Meanwhile, back in Persia, Alexander learned that guards of the tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargad was defiled, and quickly executed. Alexander admired Cyrus the Great, from a very early age to read Xenophons Cyropaedia, which described Cyruss heroism in battle and governance as a king and legislator. During his visit to Pasargadae Alexander ordered his architect Aristobulus to decorate the interior of the burial chamber of the tomb of Cyrus.

Then Alexander traveled to Ecbatana to retrieve the bulk of the Persian treasure. No, his closest friend and possible lover, hephaestion, died of illness or poisoning. Hephaestions death devastated Alexander, and he ordered the preparation of an expensive funeral pyre in Babylon, as well as a decree for public mourning. After returning to Babylon, Alexander planned a number of new campaigns, beginning with the invasion of Arabia, but he wouldnt have a chance to realize them, as he died shortly after Hephaistion.

                                     

7. Death and succession. (Смерть и преемственность)

10 or 11 of 323 BC, Alexander died in the Palace of Nebuchadnezzar II in Babylon, at age 32 Jun. There are two different versions of Alexanders death and details of the death differ slightly in each. Plutarchs account is that roughly 14 days before his death, Alexander entertained Admiral Nearchus, and spent the night and next day drinking with MEDIUS of Larissa. He developed a fever, which worsened until he could not speak. Ordinary soldiers, took care of his health, were granted the right to file past him as silently waved at them. In the second case, Diodorus recounts that Alexander was struck with pain after Downing a large bowl of unmixed wine in honour of Hercules, and after 11 days of weakness, he did not develop the fever and died after some agony. Arrian also mentioned this as an alternative, but Plutarch specifically denied this claim.

Given the propensity of the Macedonian aristocracy to assassination, foul play shown in several his death certificate. Diodorus, Plutarch, Arrian and Justin all mentioned the theory that Alexander was poisoned. Justin stated that Alexander was the victim of a poisoning conspiracy, Plutarch called it a fake, while Diodorus and Arrian noted that they mentioned only for completeness. Account still was fairly consistent in designating Antipater, recently removed as Macedonian Viceroy, and at odds with Olympias, as the head of the alleged plot. Perhaps taking his challenge to Babylon as a death sentence, and seeing the fate of Parmenio and Piloto allegedly Antipater arranged for Alexander to be poisoned by his son Iollas, who was Alexanders Wine-pourer. There was even a suggestion that Aristotle may have participated.

The strongest argument against the poison theory is the fact that twelve days passed between the beginning of the illness and death of such long-acting poisons were probably not available. However, in 2003 a documentary film of Bi-bi-si investigates the death of Alexander, Leo Schep from the NZ national poisons Centre suggested that the plant white hellebore Veratrum album, which was known in antiquity, may have been used to poison Alexander. In the manuscript of 2014 in the journal clinical toxicology, Schep suggested Alexanders Wine was spiked Veratrum album, and that it can cause symptoms of poisoning, which correspond to the course of events described in Alexandria. Poisoning with Veratrum album may have long duration, and it was suggested that if Alexander was poisoned, Veratrum album offers the most plausible reason. Another explanation of the poisoning in 2010 suggested that the circumstances of his death were compatible with poisoning by water of the river Styx in Arcadia modern Mavroneri, Greece that contained calicheamicin, a dangerous compound produced by bacteria.

Several natural causes of disease were suggested, including malaria and typhoid fever. The article of 1998 in the New England journal of medicine attributed his death to typhoid fever complicated by bowel perforation and ascending paralysis. Another recent analysis indicates pyogenic infectious spondylitis or meningitis. Other illnesses fit the symptoms, including acute pancreatitis and West Nile virus. Natural-cause theories also tend to emphasise that Alexanders health may have been in General decline after years of heavy drinking and severe wounds. The anguish that Alexander felt after Hephaestions death may also have contributed to his deteriorating health.

                                     

7.1. Death and succession. After the death of. (После смерти)

Alexanders body was laid in a gold anthropoid sarcophagus that was filled with honey, which in turn was placed in a Golden casket. According to Aelian, a seer called Aristander foretold that the land where Alexander was buried "would be happy and unvanquishable forever". Perhaps more likely, the successors may have seen possession of the body as a symbol of legitimacy, since the funeral to the king was a Royal prerogative.

During the funeral of Alexanders Motorcade on the way to Macedon, Ptolemy seized it and took it temporarily to Memphis. His successor, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, transferred the sarcophagus to Alexandria, where he remained until at least late antiquity. Ptolemy IX Lathyros, one of Ptolemys final successors, replaced Alexanders sarcophagus with a glass one so he could convert the original to coinage. The recent discovery of the enormous tomb in Northern Greece, at Amphipolis from the time of Alexander the great gave rise to speculation that its original purpose was to be the burial place of Alexander. It will fit the purpose of the funeral Alexandra procession.

Pompey, Julius Caesar and Augustus all visited the tomb in Alexandria, where Augustus, allegedly, accidentally knocked the nose. Caligula, noted Alexanders breastplate from the tomb for his own use. About 200 ad, Emperor Septimius Severus closed Alexanders tomb to the public. His son and successor, Caracalla, a great admirer, visited the tomb during his own reign. After that, details about the fate of the tomb is uncertain.

The so-called "Alexander sarcophagus", discovered near Sidon and now in the Istanbul archaeological Museum, so named not because he was thought to have contained Alexanders remains, but because its bas-reliefs depict Alexander and his companions fighting the Persians, and hunting. He was originally thought to have been the sarcophagus of Abdalonymus died 311 BC, king of Sidon appointed Alexander immediately following the battle of Issus in 331. However, recently, it has been suggested that it may date from earlier than Abdalonymuss death.

                                     

7.2. Death and succession. The division of the Empire. (Разделение империи)

Alexanders death was so sudden that when reports of his death reached Greece, they did not immediately believe. Alexander had no obvious or legitimate heir, his son Alexander IV by Roxane being born after Alexanders death. According to Diodorus, comrades Alexandrov asked him on his deathbed to whom he bequeathed his Kingdom, his laconic reply was "Toi kratistoi" - "strong." Another theory is that his followers intentionally or mistakenly misheard "Toi Krateroi" - "the crater", the General leading his Macedonian troops home and re-charged with the Regency of Macedonia.

Arrian and Plutarch claimed that Alexander was speechless at this point, implying that this is apocryphal. Diodorus, Curtius and Justin offered the more plausible story that Alexander passed his signet ring to Perdiccas, a bodyguard and leader of the companion cavalry, in front of witnesses, thereby nominating him.

Perdiccas initially did not claim power, not suggesting that Roxanes child would be king, if male, with himself, crater, Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians. However, the infantry, under the command of Meleager, rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded from the discussion. Instead, they supported Alexanders half brother Philip Arrida. In the end, the two sides were reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander IV, he and Philip III were appointed joint kings, albeit in name only.

However, disagreement and rivalry soon afflicted the Macedonians. The satrapies handed out Perdiccas under Babylon became power bases each General used to bid for power. After the assassination of Perdiccas in 321 BC, Macedonian unity collapsed, and 40 years of war between "the successors" was followed by successors to the Hellenistic world settled into four stable blocks: the Ptolemaic in Egypt, the Seleucid Mesopotamia and Central Asia, Attalid Anatolia, and Antigonid Macedon. In the process, as Alexander IV and Philip III were murdered.

                                     

7.3. Death and succession. Will. (Будет)

Diodorus stated that Alexander had given detailed written instructions to the crater for some time before his death. The crater began to execute commands Alexandra, but the successors chose not to further implement them, on the grounds that they were impractical and extravagant. Nevertheless, Perdiccas read Alexanders will to his troops.

Alexander will be called for military expansion into the southern and Western Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the interweaving of Eastern and Western populations. It includes:

  • The development of cities and the "transplant of populations from Asia to Europe and back from Europe to Asia, in order to bring the largest continent to common unity and to friendship by means of intermarriage and family ties".
  • Erection of great temples in Delos, Delphi, Dodona, the Dium, Amphipolis, and a monumental temple of Athena in Troy.
  • The conquest of Arabia and the Mediterranean.
  • Sailing around Africa. (Плавание вокруг Африки)
  • The construction of a monumental tomb for his father Philip, "to match the Great Pyramid of Egypt".
                                     

8.1. Character. Leadership. (Руководство)

Alexander earned the epithet "great" due to his unparalleled success as a military commander. He never lost a battle, despite typically in the minority. This was due to the use of terrain, phalanx and cavalry tactics, bold strategy, and the devotion of his troops. Macedonian phalanx armed with sarissa spear 6 metres 20 ft in length, were developed and perfected by Philip II through rigorous training, and Alexander used its speed and maneuverability to great effect against the more disparate Persian forces. Alexander also recognized the potential for division among his diverse army, which employed various languages and weapons. He overcame this by being personally involved in battle, in the manner of a Macedonian king.

In his first battle in Asia, at Granicus, Alexander used only a small part of his forces, perhaps 13.000 infantry with 5.000 cavalry, against a much larger Persian force of 40.000. Alexander placed the phalanx at the center and cavalry and archers on the wings, so that the line corresponds to the length of the Persian cavalry line, about 3 km 1.86 Mi. In contrast, the Persian infantry was his cavalry behind. This ensures that Alexander would not be outflanked, while his phalanx, armed with long pikes, had a considerable advantage over the Persian scimitars and spears. Macedonian losses were negligible compared to those of the Persians.

Issus in 333 BC, his first confrontation with Darius, he used the same deployment, and again the Central phalanx pushed through. Alexander personally led the attack in the center, routing the opposing army. In the decisive encounter with Darius at Gaugamela, Darius equipped his chariots with scythes on the wheels to break up the phalanx and equipped his cavalry with pikes. Alexander arranged a double phalanx, with the center advancing at an angle, parting when the chariots went, and then to reform. The advance was successful and broke Darius center, whereby the latter is again run.

When faced with opponents who used unfamiliar fighting techniques, such as in Central Asia and India, Alexander adapted his forces to his opponents style. Thus, in Bactria and Sogdiana, Alexander successfully used his javelin throwers and archers to prevent the bypass movements and the massing of the cavalry in the centre. In India, faced with Porus elephant corps, the Macedonians opened their ranks to surround the elephants and used their sarissas to strike upwards and dislodge the elephants tamers.

                                     

8.2. Character. Appearance. (Внешний вид)

The Greek biographer Plutarch p. 45 – C. 120 ad describes the appearance of Alexandra as:

The appearance of Alexander is best represented by his statues of Lysippus, which had made, and behold this artist only that Alexander himself thought fit that it should be built. For those features which many of his successors and friends afterwards tried to imitate, namely, the twist of a neck that was slightly bent to the left, and the melting glance of his eyes, the artist just met. Apelles, however, in painting it as Lord of the thunder-Bolt, not reproduce his complexion, but too dark and swarthy. While it was a fair colour, as they say, and his fairness passed into ruddiness on his chest especially, and in his face. Besides that very pleasant smell, exuded from his skin and that there was a fragrance about his mouth and all his flesh, so that his garments were filled, we read in the memoirs of Aristoxenus.

The Greek historian Arrian Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon p. 86 – C. 160 ad described Alexander as:

he strong, handsome commander with one eye dark as the night and blue as the sky.

Semi-legendary Alexander novel also suggests that Alexander exhibited iridium heterochromia: one eye dark and the other light.

British historian Peter green physical description of Alexander, based on his review of statues and some ancient documents:

Physically, Alexander was not prepossessing. Even by Macedonian standards he was very short, but stocky and strong. His beard was scanty, and he stood on his hairy Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven. His neck was somehow twisted so that it seemed to stare up at an angle. His eyes, one blue, one brown revealed a dewy, feminine quality. He had a high complexion and a harsh voice.

Ancient authors recorded that Alexander was so pleased with portraits of himself created of Lysippus, that he forbade other sculptors when creating their image. Lysippos is often used sculptural contrapposto scheme to portray Alexander and other characters such as Apoxyomenos, Hermes and Eros. Sculpture Lysippos, famous for its naturalism, in contrast to the more rigid, more static pose, is considered the most faithful image.

                                     

8.3. Character. Personality. (Личность)

Some of Aleksandrov strongest personality traits formed in response to his parents. His mother had huge ambitions, and encouraged him to believe that it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire. The impact of the Olympics instilled a sense of destiny in him, and Plutarch tells how his ambition "kept his spirit serious and lofty to his years." However, his father Philip Alexandrov, most immediate and influential role model, as the young Alexander watched him campaign practically every year, winning victory after victory while ignoring severe wounds. The relationship of Alexander with his father forged the low side of his personality, he had a need to outdo his father, illustrated by his reckless behavior in battle. While Alexander worried that his father would leave him "no great or brilliant achievement to be displayed to the world," he also downplayed his achievements of the fathers to their comrades.

According to Plutarch, among Alexanders traits were a violent temper and rash, impulsive nature, which undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions. Although Alexander was stubborn and did not react well to orders from his father, he was open to reasoned debate. He had a calmer side - perceptive, logical and calculating. He had a great desire for knowledge, a love for philosophy and was an avid reader. It was no doubt partly due to Aristotles tutelage, Alexander was intelligent and quick to learn. His intelligent and rational side was amply demonstrated his ability and success as a whole. He had great restraint in "pleasures of the body," in contrast to his lack of self control with alcohol.

Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and Sciences. However, he had little interest in sports or the Olympic games, unlike his father, seeking only the Homeric ideals of honor timê and glory honor and praise. He had great charisma and force of personality, characteristics which made him a great leader. His unique abilities were demonstrated once again the inability of any of his generals to unite Macedonia and retain the Empire after his death - only Alexander had the ability to do it.

During his last years, and especially after the death of hephaestion, Alexander began to exhibit signs of megalomania and paranoia. His extraordinary achievements, coupled with his own ineffable sense of destiny and the flattery of his companions, can be combined to produce this effect. His megalomania is evident in his will and in his quest to conquer the world, because it is different sources is described as having boundless ambition, an epithet, the meaning of which occurred in the historical cliché.

He seems to have believed himself a deity, or at least sought to deify himself. Olympias always insisted to him that he was the son of Zeus, the theory is clearly confirmed by the words of the Oracle of Amun at Siwa. He began to identify himself as the son of Zeus-Amon. Alexander adopted elements of Persian dress and customs at court, in particular, proskynesis, the practice of which Macedonians disapproved, and were unwilling to perform. This behavior cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen. However, Alexander also was a pragmatic ruler who understood the difficulties with the ruling of disparate cultural peoples, many of whom lived in kingdoms where the king was divine. Thus, not megalomania, his behavior may simply be a practical attempt at strengthening his power and keep together his Empire.

                                     

8.4. Character. Personal relationships. (Личные отношения)

Alexander was married three times: to Roxana, the daughter of a Sogdian nobleman Oxyartes of Bactria, out of love, and the Persian princesses Stateira II and Parysatis II, the former a daughter of Darius III and the last daughter of Artaxerxes III, for political reasons. He apparently had two sons, Alexander IV of Macedon by Roxana and, possibly, Heracles of Macedon from his mistress Barsine. He lost another child when Roxana miscarried at Babylon.

Alexander also had a close relationship with his friend, General and bodyguard hephaestion, the son of a Macedonian noble. Hephaestions death devastated Alexander. This event may have contributed to Alexanders failing health and a separate mental state in recent months.

Alexanders sexuality has been the subject of speculation and controversy in modern times. Roman writer Athenaeus tells of the era, based on Dicaearchus, a scientist who was a contemporary of Alexander that the king "was quite excessively keen on boys" and that Alexander sexually hugged him Bagoas the eunuch in public places. This episode is also told by Plutarch, probably based on the same source. None of the contemporaries of Alexander, however, known, and described in detail the relationship of Alexander with Hephaistion as sexy, although the couple was often compared with Achilles and Patroclus, of which classical Greek culture was painted as a pair. Aelian writes of Alexander: a visit to Troy where "Alexander garlanded the tomb of Achilles and hephaestion that of Patroclus, the latter implying that he was the beloved of Alexander, in the same way as Patroclus was of Achilles". Some modern historians such as Robin lane Fox not only think that the relationship with the young Alexander hephaestion was sexual, but their sex can be perpetuated in adulthood, which went against social norms, at least some Greek cities such as Athens, although some modern scholars have tentatively suggested that Macedonia or even the Macedonian court may have been more tolerant of homosexuality between adults.

Green argues that there is little evidence in ancient sources that Alexander had much carnal interest in women, he will not produce an heir until the very end of his life. However, Ogden expects that Alexander, who impregnated his partners three times in eight years, had a higher marriage than his father at the same age. Two of these pregnancies - Stateiras and Barsines - are of dubious legitimacy.

According to Diodorus, Alexander had accumulated a harem in the style of Persian kings but he used it rather sparingly; showing great self-control in "pleasures of the body." Nevertheless, Plutarch described how Alexander was fond of Roxanne yet praise him not forcing himself on her. Green suggested that, in the context of the period, Alexander formed quite strong friendships with women, including Ada of Caria, who adopted him, and even Dariuss mother Sisygambis, who supposedly died from grief after learning of the death of Alexander.

                                     

9. Heritage. (Наследие)

Alexandrovs legacy extends beyond his military conquests. His campaigns greatly increased contacts and trade between East and West, and vast areas in the East were significantly exposed to Greek civilization and influence. Some of the cities he founded became major cultural centers, many surviving into the 21st century. His chroniclers recorded valuable information about the places through which he marched, while the Greeks themselves got a sense of belonging to the world beyond the Mediterranean sea.

                                     

9.1. Heritage. The Hellenistic kingdoms. (Эллинистических царств)

Most of Aleksandrovs immediate legacy was the introduction of Macedonian rule to huge new spaces of Asia. At the time of his death Alexanders Empire covered some 5.200.000 km2 2.000.000 square miles, and was the largest state of its time. Many of these areas remain in Macedonian hands or under Greek influence for the next 200-300 years. The successor States that arose, at least initially, dominant forces, and these 300 years are often called the Hellenistic period.

The Eastern border of Alexanders Empire began to collapse even during his lifetime. However, the power vacuum he left in the Northwest of the Indian subcontinent directly gave rise to one of the most powerful Indian dynasties in the history of the Mauryan Empire. Taking advantage of the power vacuum Maurya Chandragupta is mentioned in Greek sources as "Sandrokottos", of relatively humble origin, seized the Punjab, and that the government has begun to conquer the Nanda Empire.

                                     

9.2. Heritage. The founding of the city. (Основания города)

During his conquests, Alexander founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most of them East of the Tigris. The first, and greatest, was Alexandria in Egypt, which would become one of the leading Mediterranean cities. The location of the cities reflected trade routes as well as defensive positions. First, the cities must have been inhospitable, little more than defensive garrisons. After Alexanders death, many Greeks who had settled there tried to return to Greece. However, a century or so after Alexanders death, many of Alexandria flourished, with elaborate public buildings and substantial populations that included both Greek and local population.

                                     

9.3. Heritage. Financing of churches. (Финансирование Церкви)

In 334 BC, Alexander the Great donated funds for the completion of the new temple of Athena polias in Priene. The inscription from the temple, now kept in the British Museum, says: "king Alexander dedicated to Athena Polias". This inscription is one of the few independent archaeological discoveries, confirming the episode in the life of Alexandra. The Church was designed by Pytheos, one of the architects of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus.

                                     

9.4. Heritage. Hellenization. (Эллинизация)

Hellenization was coined by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to denote the spread of Greek language, culture, and population into the former Persian Empire after Alexanders conquest. This export was no doubt, and can be seen in the Great Hellenistic cities such as Alexandria, Antioch, and Seleucia, South of modern Baghdad. Alexander tried to insert Greek elements into Persian culture and attempted to twist the Greek and Persian culture. It led his aspiration to homogenize the populations of Asia and Europe. However, his successors explicitly rejected such policies. Nevertheless, Hellenization occurred throughout the region, accompanied by a distinct and opposite orientalization of the successor States.

The core of Hellenistic culture proclaimed conquests, in fact, was an Athenian. The close connection of people from all over Greece in Alexandrov the army led directly to the emergence of the largely attic-based "Koine" or "common" Greek dialect. Koine spread throughout the Hellenistic world, becoming a universal language of Hellenistic lands and eventually the ancestor of modern Greek. In addition, urban planning, education, local government, arts and current in the Hellenistic period was based on classical Greek ideals, evolving into various new forms commonly grouped as Hellenistic. Aspects of Hellenistic culture were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century.

                                     

9.5. Heritage. The Hellenization of Central Asia and India. (Эллинизацию Центральной Азии и Индии)

Some of the most pronounced effects of Hellenization can be seen in Afghanistan and India in the region of the relatively late-rising Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 250-125 BCE and the Indo-Greek Kingdom 180 BC – 10 ad, In modern Afghanistan and India. On the Silk road trade routes, the Hellenistic culture of hybridization with the Iranian and Buddhist cultures. The Cosmopolitan art and mythology of Gandhara, a region spanning the upper confluence of the Indus, SWAT and Kabul river in modern Pakistan to ~3 century BC to about the 5th century of our era the most obvious direct contact between the Hellenistic civilization and South Asia, as are the edicts of Ashoka, which explicitly mentions the Greeks in dominion as Ashokas conversion to Buddhism and the reception of Buddhist emissaries to Ashokas contemporaries in the Hellenistic world. As a result of the syncretism known as Greco-Buddhism influenced the development of Buddhism and created a culture of Greco-Buddhist art. These Greco-Buddhist kingdoms sent some of the first Buddhist missionaries to China, Sri Lanka and Hellenistic Asia and Europe, Greco-Buddhist monasticism.

Some of the earliest and most influential figurative images of the Buddha appeared at this time, perhaps modeled on Greek statues of Apollo in the Greco-Buddhist style. Several Buddhist traditions may have been influenced by ancient Greek religion: the concept of Boddhisatvas is reminiscent of Greek divine heroes, and some Mahayana rituals similar to those practiced by the ancient Greeks, however, this practice was also observed among the native Indian culture. One Greek king, Menander I, probably became Buddhist, and was immortalized in Buddhist literature as Milinda. The process of Hellenization also stimulated trade between East and West. For example, Greek astronomical instruments, dated 3 century BC has been found in Greco-Bactrian city of AI Khanum in Afghanistan while the Greek concept of a spherical Earth surrounded by the spheres of the planets, ultimately ousted long-standing Indian cosmological belief of a disc consisting of four continents surrounding a Central mountain, mount Meru, like the petals of a flower. In the Yavanajataka burning. Greek treatise on astronomy and Paulisa Siddhanta texts reflect the influence of Greek astronomical ideas of Indian astronomy.

After the conquests of Alexander the great in the East, Hellenistic influence of Indian art was far-reaching. In the field of architecture, some examples of the ionic order can be found as Pakistan with the Jandial temple near Taxila. A few examples of the capitals show the ion effects can be seen as far as Patna, especially with Pataliputra, the capital, Dating from the 3rd century BC. The Corinthian order is also well represented in the art of Gandhara, especially in the Indo-Corinthian capitals.

                                     

9.6. Heritage. Influence on Rome. (Влияние на Рим)

Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans, especially generals, who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements. Polybius began his history to remind the Romans about the achievements of Alexander and then the Roman leaders saw him as a role model. Pompey the Great adopted the epithet "Magnus" and even Alexanders anastole-type haircut, and searched the conquered lands of the East Alexanders 260-year-old cloak, which he wore as a sign of greatness. Julius Caesar dedicated Lysippean equestrian bronze statue but replaced Alexanders head with his own, while Octavian visited Alexanders tomb in Alexandria and temporarily changed his seal from a Sphinx to Alexanders profile. The Emperor Trajan also admired Alexander, as did Nero and Caracalla. In the Macriani, a Roman family that in the person of Macrinus briefly ascended to the Imperial throne, kept images of Alexander on their persons, either on jewelry, or embroidered into their clothes.

On the other hand, some Roman authors, particularly Republican figures, used Alexander as a cautionary tale of how autocratic tendencies can be kept in registration of national importance. Alexander was used by these writers as an example of ruler values amicita friendship and clemencia pharmaceuticals pardon, but also iracundia anger and gloriae cupiditas, the desire of fame.

                                     

9.7. Heritage. Bad plan to cut a canal across the isthmus. (Плохой план, чтобы сократить канал через перешеек)

Pausanias writes that Alexander wanted to dig today, the mountain Mimas in the district of Karaburun, but he will not succeed. He also mentions that it was the only unsuccessful project Alexander. In addition, Pliny the Elder wrote about this unsuccessful plan adding that the distance was 12 km 7 1 ⁄ 2 mi, and the goal was to cut a channel through the isthmus to connect Caystrian and Hermaean bays.

                                     

9.8. Heritage. Legend. (Легенда)

Legends and stories around the life of Alexander the great, many deriving from his own lifetime, probably encouraged by Alexander himself. His court historian Callisthenes portrayed the sea in Cilicia, odergivala from him in proskynesis. Shortly after Alexanders death, another participant, Onesicritus, invented a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris, Queen of the mythical Amazons. When Onesicritus read this passage to his patron, Alexander, was reported to the General and later king Lysimachus replied: "I wonder where I was at that time".

In the first centuries after Alexanders death, probably in Alexandria, a quantity of the legendary materials are combined in the text known as the Alexander romance, later falsely ascribed to Callisthenes and therefore known as pseudo-Callisthenes. This text includes numerous additions and revisions throughout antiquity and the middle Ages, containing many dubious stories, and has been translated into many languages.

                                     

9.9. Heritage. In ancient and modern culture. (В древней и современной культуры)

The great achievements and legacy of Alexander was depicted in many cultures. Alexander thought in high and popular culture at the beginning of his era and to this day. Alexander romance, in particular, had a significant impact on the image of Alexander in later cultures, from Persian to medieval European to modern Greek.

A. features prominently in modern Greek folklore, more so than any other ancient figure. The colloquial form of his name in modern Greek "o Megalexandros" is a household name and he is the only ancient hero to appear in the Karagiozis shadow play. In a well-known fable among Greek seamen involves a solitary mermaid who would grasp a ships bow during a storm and ask the captain is king Alexander alive?" Correct answer: "he is alive and well and rules the world!" calls the mermaid disappeared, and the sea. Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn into a raging Gorgon who would drag the ship to the bottom of the sea, all hands aboard.

In the pre-Islamic middle Persian Zoroastrian literature, Alexander is referred to gujastak epithet, meaning "accursed", and is accused of destroying temples and burning the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism. In the Islamic Sunni Persia, under the influence of the romance of Alexander in Persian: اسکندرنامه Iskandarnamah, a more positive image of Alexander emerges. Firdausis Shahnameh "book of kings" Alexander is part of a legitimate Persian shahs, a mythical figure who explored the far corners of the world in search of the fountain of Youth. Later Persian writers associate him with philosophy, portraying him at a Symposium with figures such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, in search of immortality.

The figure of Dhul-Qarnayn literally "the two-Horned one", is described in the Quran, according to scientists, should be based on later legends of Alexander. In this tradition, he was a heroic figure who built a wall to protect against the peoples of Gog and Magog. He then visited the known world in search of the water of life and immortality, eventually becoming a prophet.

The Syrian version of the Alexander novel depicts him as an ideal Christian world Conqueror who prayed to "the one True God." In Egypt, Alexander was portrayed as the son of Nectanebo II, the last Pharaoh before the Persian conquest. His defeat of Darius was depicted as Egypts salvation, "proving" that Egypt was still under the rule of Egypt.

According to Josephus, Alexander was shown the book of Daniel, when he entered Jerusalem, which described a mighty Greek king who would conquer the Persian Empire. This is cited as a reason for sparing Jerusalem.

In Hindi and Urdu, the name "Sikandar", derived from the Persian name of Alexander, means the growth of young talents, and the ruler of the Delhi Sultanate Khajli Aladdin portrayed himself as the "Sikandar-I-Sani," the second Alexander the great. In medieval India, Turkic and Afghan rulers of Iran cultivated the Central Asian region, brought the positive cultural connotations of Alexander to the Indian subcontinent, with the result that blossomed Sikandernameh Alexander romances written in Indo-Persian poets, such as Amir Khusrow and significance of Alexander the great as a popular subject in Mughal era Persian miniatures. In Medieval Europe, Alexander the Great was worshiped as a member of the nine worthy, band of heroes, whose life was thought to encapsulate all the ideal qualities of chivalry.

In the Greek anthology poems, referring to Alexander.

Irish playwright Aubrey Thomas de Vere wrote Alexander the Great a dramatic poem.

In popular culture, the British heavy metal band Iron Maiden included a song called "Alexander the Great" from their 1986 album somewhere in time. Wrote bass player Steve Harris, the song recounts the life of Alexander.

                                     

10. Historiography. (Историография)

Apart from a few inscriptions and fragments, texts written by people who actually knew Alexander or who gathered information from men who served with Alexander were all lost. Contemporaries who wrote accounts of his life included Alexanders campaign historian Callisthenes, Alexanders Generals Ptolemy and Nearchus, Aristobulus, a Junior officer on campaign, and Onesicritus, Alexander, chief helmsman. Their works have been lost, but later works based on these original sources are preserved. The earliest of them by Diodorus Siculus 1 St century BC, Then Quintus Curtius Rufus mid-late 1st century ad, Arrian 1st to 2nd century ad biographer Plutarch 1st to 2nd century ad, and finally Justin, whose work dated as late as the 4th century. Of these, Arrian, usually regarded as the most reliable, given that he used Ptolemy and Aristobulus as his sources, closely followed by Diodorus.

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Alexander the Great Biography, Empire, & Facts Britannica.

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The world of Alexander British Museum.

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What killed Alexander the Great? NCBI.

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