## Orchestrated objective reduction

Orchestrated objective reduction is a biological philosophy of mind which posits that consciousness arises at the quantum level inside the neurons, not the generally accepted opinion that it is a product of connections between neurons. The mechanism is a quantum process, called reduce, which are controlled by cellular structures called microtubules. It is assumed that the theory can answer the hard problem of consciousness and provide a mechanism for free will. This hypothesis was first proposed in the early 1990-ies physicist Roger Penrose and anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff and psychologist. The hypothesis combines approaches from molecular biology, neuroscience, pharmacology, philosophy, quantum information theory and quantum gravity.

While mainstream theories claim that consciousness arises as the complexity of the calculations due to the increase of brain neurons, orch-or posits that consciousness is based on non-computable quantum processing performed on the qubits formed collectively on the microtubules of the cell, a process significantly amplified in the neurons. Qubits are based on oscillating dipoles forming a combined resonance rings in helical pathways throughout microtubule lattices. The oscillations are either electric, in connection with the charge separation from London forces, or magnetic, due to electron spin - and possibly also due to nuclear spins, which can not remain isolated for longer periods, which occur in gigahertz, megahertz and the frequency range of kilohertz. Orchestration means the hypothetical process by which connective proteins, such as MT-associated proteins maps, influence or arrange for the qubit reduced state by modifying the spacetime-separation of their superimposed States. The latter is based on Penrose objective-collapse theory for interpreting quantum mechanics, which postulates the existence of an objective threshold governing the collapse of quantum States associated with the difference of space-time curvature of these States in the universe of small-scale structure.

The orchestration is or has been criticized since its inception by mathematicians, philosophers and scientists, prompting the authors to revise and clarify many theorys peripheral assumptions, retaining the basic hypothesis. Criticism focused on three issues: Penrose interpretation of Godels theorem, Penrose abductive reasoning linking the non-computability of quantum processes, brain and unfitness for the conduct of quantum phenomena requires theory, because it is too "warm, wet and noisy" to avoid decoherence. In other words, there is a missing link between physics and neuroscience in pursuit of a theory of everything. However, some evidence has been produced in recent years.

## 1. Background. * (Фон) *

In 1931 the mathematician and logician Kurt gödel proved that any effectively generated theory capable of proving basic arithmetic cannot be both consistent and complete. In other words, a mathematically sound theory is not enough money to prove himself. A similar statement was used to show that people are subject to the same restrictions as cars. However, in his first book on consciousness, the emperors new mind, 1989, Roger Penrose argued that gödel-unprovable results are provable by human mathematicians. He takes this disparity to mean that human mathematicians are not describable as formal proof systems, and hence management is not computable algorithm.

If correct, the Penrose–Lucas argument does not answer the question about the physical basis of non-computable behaviour openly. Most physical laws are computable, and thus algorithmic. However, Penrose determined that wave function collapse was the main candidate for non-computable processes. In quantum mechanics, particles are different from the objects of classical mechanics. Particles are described by wave functions that evolve according to Schrodinger equation. Non-stationary wave functions are linear combinations of the eigenstates of the system, the phenomenon described by the principle of superposition. When a quantum system interacts with a classical system - i.e. when the observed measured - the system seems to collapse random own as that observed from the classical point of view.

If the collapse truly random, then there is no process or algorithm can deterministically predict the outcome. It gave Penrose with a candidate for the physical basis of non-computable processes that he assumed the existence in the brain. However, he did not like the random nature of environmentally-induced decay, and randomness was not a promising basis for mathematical understanding. Penrose suggested that isolated systems may still undergo a new form of wave function collapse that he called objective reduction, or.

Penrose tried to reconcile General relativity and quantum theory using his own ideas on the possible structure of space-time. He suggested that the scale of the Planck curved space-time is not continuous, but discrete. He further postulated that each separated quantum superposition has its own piece of the curvature of space-time, a blister in space-time. Penrose suggests that gravity exerts a force on these space-time bubbles, which become unstable above the Planck scale, 10 to 35 m {\the style property display set to 10^{-35}{\text{m}}} and collapse to only one possible state. A rough threshold or is determined by the uncertainty principle described in the article:

τ ≈ ℏ / E G {\displaystyle \tau \approx \hbar /E_{G}} where:- ℏ {\the style property display the value of the bar\} is the reduced Planck constant.
- G {\the properties of the style used to display the value of the{g}} is the gravitational self-energy or the degree of separation of space-time is given by the superpositioned mass, and.
- Τ {\the style property display the value\Tau } is the time until or occurs.

Thus, the greater the mass-energy of an object, the faster it will undergo or, and Vice versa. Atomic-level superposition would require 10 million years to reach or threshold, while an isolated object is 1 kilogram the threshold is reached in 10 -37 C. Objects somewhere between these two scales may collapse at the time relevant to neural processing.

An essential feature of the theory described in the article is that the choice of States when objective reduction occurs is selected not by chance, as the choice following the collapse of the wave function or algorithmically. Rather, States were elected "non-computable" influence embedded in Planck scale geometry of space-time. Penrose claims that such information is Platonic, representing pure mathematical truth, aesthetic and ethical values at the Planck scale. This relates to the ideas of Penrose about the three worlds: physical, mental, and Platonic mathematical world.

The Penrose–Lucas argument has been criticized by mathematicians, computer scientists, philosophers, and the consensus among experts in these fields is that the argument fails with different authors attack various aspects of the argument. Minsky argued that, because people can believe false ideas to be true, the human mathematical understanding is not necessary to be consistent and mind can easily have a deterministic basis. Feferman argued that mathematics is not the success of the mechanistic search of evidence, but by trial and error reasoning, insight and inspiration, and that machines do not share this approach with people.

## 2. Orch or. * (ОРЧ или) *

Penrose described the predecessor of the CFP or the emperors new mind, approaching the problem from a mathematical point of view, and, in particular, theorem Godels, but lacked a detailed proposal for how quantum processes may be implemented in the brain. Stuart Hameroff worked separately in cancer research and anesthesia that gave him an interest in the processes of the brain. The hameroff read Penroses book and suggested to him that microtubules in neurons were suitable candidate for quantum processing and ultimately for consciousness. During the 1990-ies, two in conjunction with the orch-or theory, which Penrose has published shadows of the mind 1994.

Hameroffs contribution to the theory derived from the study of the neural cytoskeleton, especially microtubules. As neuroscience has advanced, the role of the cytoskeleton and of microtubules is becoming more and more important. In addition to providing structural support, the functions of the microtubules include axoplasmic transport and control the movement of cells, growth and form.

Orchestration or combines the Penrose–Lucas argument with the hypothesis Hameroffs for quantum processing in microtubules. He suggests that when condenseries in the brain undergo an objective wave function reduction of their decay connects noncomputational decision-making experience that is embedded in spacetimes of fundamental geometry. The theory further suggests that microtubules influence and are influenced by the conventional activity at the synapses between neurons.

### * 2.1. Orch or. * Microtubules calculation. * (Расчет микротрубочек) *

The hameroff offers microtubules were suitable candidates for quantum processing. Microtubules are composed of subunits of the protein tubulin. Dimers of the protein tubulin in the microtubules have hydrophobic pockets that can contain delocalized π-electrons. Tubulin and other smaller non-polar regions, for example 8 tryptophan in tubulin, which contain π electron-rich indole rings distributed throughout tubulin with separations of about 2 nm. The hameroff claims that this is close enough for the tubulin π electrons to become quantum entangled. During the captivity, the particle States become inextricably linked.

The hameroff originally suggested in the fringe journal of cosmology that the tubulin-subunit electrons form a condensate Bose–Einstein. He then proposed a Frohlich condensate, a hypothetical coherent oscillation of dipolar molecules. However, this too was rejected by the group, Reimers. Then Hameroff answered Reimers. "Reimers and others also showed that a strong or coherent fröhlich condensation in the MT is impractical. Model of microtubules on which they base their Hamiltonian is not the structure of microtubules, but a simple linear chain of oscillators." The hameroff reasoned that such behavior of the condensate will increase quantum effects of the nanostructure to have large-scale influence in the brain.

The hameroff offers condensates in microtubules in one neuron can communicate with microtubule condensates in other neurons and glial cells through gap junctions electrical synapses. The hameroff suggested that the gap between the cells is small enough that quantum objects can tunnel through it, allowing them to spread to a large area of the brain. He further suggested that the effect of this large-scale quantum activity of gamma waves 40 Hz, based on the much less controversial theory that gap junctions are associated with gamma oscillations.

### * 2.2. Orch or. * Evidence. * (Доказательств) *

In 1998, Hameroff made eight probable assumptions and projections 20 on the test the offer. In 2013, Anirban Bandyopadhyay of Japans National Institute of materials science discovered quantum States in microtubules. Penrose and Hameroff reported that experiments Bandyopadhyays supported six of the 20 theses, while invalidating all others. They then responded to a few reviews.

In 2015, physicist Matthew Fisher of the University of California at Santa Barbara suggested that nuclear spins of phosphorus atoms could become entangled, preventing the loss of information and allows decoherence for quantum computation in the brain. Felix the experiment were also asked to evaluate and to measure the extent orchestrated objective reduction.

### * 3.1. Criticism. * Decoherence in living organisms. * (Декогеренция в живых организмах) *

In 2000, Tegmark States that any quantum coherent system in the brain can occur effective wave-function collapse due to environmental interactions long before you can influence the neural processes. He determined the decoherence time of entanglement in microtubules of the brain temperature of the order of femtoseconds, are too brief for neural processing. Christof Koch and Klaus HPP also agreed that quantum coherence does not play, or not play any important role in neurophysiology. Koch and HEPP came to the conclusion that `the empirical demonstration of the slow decoherence and controllable quantum bits, neurons, connected by electrical or chemical synapses, or the discovery of efficient quantum algorithm for computations performed by the brain, has a lot to do to bring these arguments are far from’ very unlikely.

In response to Tegmarks says Kagan, sat and Hameroff claimed that Tegmark not addressed in the orch-or model, and the model of its design. This involved superpositions of quanta separated by 24 nm, and not the much smaller separations stipulated for fruit or. As a result, the group Hameroffs claimed decoherence seven orders of magnitude greater than Tegmarks, though far below 25 MS. Group Hameroffs also suggested that the Debye layer of counterions can screen thermal fluctuations, and that around actin gel, can increase the order of water, then screening the noise. They also suggested that incoherent metabolic energy can also order water, and, finally, that the structure of the microtubule lattice might be suitable for quantum error correction, and means to resist quantum decoherence.

Since 1990-ies numerous counter-surveillance on the "warm, wet and noisy" argument existed at ambient temperature, in vitro and in vivo, i.e. photosynthesis and navigation of birds. For example, researchers from Harvard have made quantum States of a duration of 2 h at room temperature with diamonds. Plants typically use quantum coherent electron transport at ambient temperatures in photosynthesis. In 2014, researchers used a theoretical quantum Biophysics and computer modeling to analyze quantum coherence among tryptophan PI resonance rings in tubulin. They argued that the quantum dipole is the relationship between tryptophan-resonant π clouds, mediated by hopping of exciton or Forster resonance energy transfer to worry of the protein tubulin are most likely.

In 2007, Gregory S. Engel, Professor of chemistry at the University of Chicago, argued that all arguments concerning the brain being "too warm and wet" have been dispelled, as multiple "warm and wet" quantum processes have been discovered.

In 2009 Reimers et al. and McKemmish et al. published critical evaluation. Early versions of the theory demanded the tubulin electrons in a Bose–Einstein or Frohlich condensate, and the band Reimers argues that it was unreasonable experimentally. In addition, they claimed that microtubules could only support weak consistency 8 MHz. The first argument was annulled by the revision of the theory that describes the dipole oscillation due to the forces of London, possibly due to magnetic and / or nuclear spin of the cloud formations. On the second question, this theory has been upgraded so that 8 MHz coherence is sufficient to support the whole orch-or hypothesis.

McKemmish et al. made two claims: that aromatic molecules cannot switch States because they are remote, and that changes in tubulin protein conformation is due to the conversion of GTP in the result of irresistible energy needs. The hameroff and Penrose responded to the first statement that they had in mind the behavior of two or more electron clouds, in fact, are not localized. For the second claim, they stated that the conversion of GTP is necessary because in this variant of the theory of conformation-switching is not required, replaced with hesitation due to London forces arise under the influence of the electron cloud dipole.

### * 3.2. Criticism. * Neuroscience. * (Неврология) *

Hypothesis Hameroffs 1998 demanded that cortical dendrites contain primarily lattice microtubule, but in 1994 by Kikkawa et al. showed that all in vivo microtubules have a B lattice and a seam.

Orch or also requires gap junctions between neurons and glial cells, but Binmoller FL. Al. in 1992 proved that these do not exist in the adult human brain. In vitro studies in primary culture of neurons confirm that electrotonic gap junction coupling between immature neurons and astrocytes derived from rat embryos extracted prematurely by caesarean section, however, orch-or claim that Mature neurons are electrotonically in combination with astrocytes in the adult human brain. Therefore, orch or is inconsistent with documented electrotonic isolation of neurons from astrocytes in the maturation process of neurons, which said Froes et al. the following: "Assembly may provide metabolic and electrotonic connections between neurons and astrocytic networks in the early stages of neural development, and these interactions are weakened, as differentiation progresses."

In 2001, Hameroff suggests microtubule coherence spreads between different neurons via dendritic lamellar bodies of the DLBs associated directly with gap junctions. De Zeeuw et al. it has been proved that it is impossible in 1995, by showing that DLBs are located micrometers from gap junctions.

In 2014, Bandyopadhyay Et. Al. suggested that microtubule-based quantum coherence can spread between different neurons, if the concept of a wireless information transfer within the brain proven. The hameroff and Penrose doubt that such wireless transmission will be able to transmit superimposed quantum States and adhere to their original proposal the junction gap.

The hameroff suggested that the visual photons in the retina are detected directly on the rods and cones is decohering and subsequently connect with retinal glial cells via gap junctions, but this too was falsified.

Other biology-based criticism have been proposed. Documents under items Georgiev issues Hameroffs proposals, including the lack of explanation for the probabilistic release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic axonal terminals and error in the calculated number of tubulin dimers in cortical neurons. The hameroff insisted in a 2013 interview with that these falsifications were invalid, but did not provide any explanation for where fraud will not work.

Index of philosophy of mind articles |

Anupadaka |

Autopoiesis |

Barddas |

Animal machine |

Binding problem |

Vihangamyoga |

Brain dump |

Bridge locus |

Chanchala |

Characterology |

Cittabhumi |

Coincidence |

Concept and object |

Conduit metaphor |

Dejà vu |

Dhi (Hindu thought) |

Digital philosophy |

Direction of fit |

Entention |

Epiphenomenon |

Externalism |

Folk psychology |

Great Rationality Debate |

Heterophenomenology |

Intelligibility (philosophy) |

Intentionality |

Interactionism (philosophy of mind) |

Interpretation (logic) |

Introspection illusion |

Memeplex |

Mental event |

Mental fact |

Mental property |

Mental world |

Meta-emotion |

Metameme |

Mind–body problem |

Moral psychology |

Naturalization of intentionality |

Neural correlates of consciousness |

Neutral monism |

Noetics |

Nomology |

Orthotes |

Other (philosophy) |

Passive intellect |

Phaneron |

Phenomenal concept strategy |

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Brand |

Outer space |

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