Apotheosis - deified people. Apotheosis the glorification of a subject to divine level and most often in the treatment of man as God. The term has a meaning ..



Apotheosis the glorification of a subject to divine level and most often in the treatment of man as God. The term has a meaning in theology, where it refers to a belief, and in art, where it belongs to the genre.

In theology, apotheosis refers to the idea that the individual has been elevated to godlike level. In art, the term refers to the treatment of any subject in a particularly great or exalted manner.


1. Antiquity. (Древности)

To the Hellenistic period, Imperial cults were known in Ancient Egypt, the pharaohs and Mesopotamia with naram-Sin. With the New Kingdom, all deceased pharaohs deified as the God Osiris.


2. Ancient Greece. (Древней Греции)

At least from the geometric period from IX century BC, the long-deceased heroes linked with founding myths of Greek sites were given the chthonic rites in their Geroon, or "hero-temple".

In the Greek world, the first leader, who left to himself divine honours was Philip II of Macedon. On his marriage to his sixth wife, Philips throne image was carried in procession among the Olympian gods, "his example at aigai became a custom, passing to the Macedonian kings who were later worshipped in Greek Asia, from them to Julius Caesar and the emperors of Rome". Such Hellenistic state leaders might be raised to a status equal to the gods before death, for example, Alexander the great, or after, for example, members of the Ptolemaic dynasty. The heroic cult status similar to apotheosis was also rewarding a few of the revered artists of the distant past, notably Homer.

Archaic and classical Greek hero-cults were mostly civic, extended from their familial origins, in the sixth century to the fifth century none of the faithful on the basis of their authority for tracing the origin of the back of the hero, with the exception of some families who inherited particular priestly cult, such as Eumolpides He descended from Eleusinian mysteries, and some inherited priesthoods in the Oracle sites. Greek hero cults can be distinguished on the other hand from the Roman cult of dead emperors, because the hero was not regarded as having ascended to Olympus and became a God: he was beneath the earth, and his power purely local. For this reason, the hero cults were chthonic in nature, and their rituals more closely resembled those for Hecate and Persephone than those for Zeus and Apollo. There were two exceptions of Hercules and Asclepius, who might be called either gods or heroes, sometimes at night chthonic rites and sacrifices on the following day.


3. Ancient Rome. (Древний Рим)

Until the end of the Republic, God Quirinus were the only Romans are taken as the apotheosis of the past, to identify it / syncretism with Romulus. See Euhemerism. Subsequently, the apotheosis in Ancient Rome was a process whereby a deceased ruler was recognized as divine by his successor usually also by a decree of the Senate and popular consent. In addition to showing respect, often the present ruler deified a popular predecessor to legitimize himself and gain popularity among the people. The upper class did not always participate in the Imperial cult, and some private ridiculed the apotheosis of inept and weak emperors, as in the satire on the Pumpkinification of the Divine Claudius, usually attributed to Seneca.

In the midst of the Imperial cult during the Roman Empire, sometimes of the emperors deceased loved ones - heirs, empresses, or lovers, as Hadrians Antinous - were deified as well. Deified people were awarded posthumously the title Divus diva if women their names, to show his divinity. Traditional Roman religion differ Deus a divus God and a mortal who became divine or deified, although not consistently. Temples and columns were built to provide a place for worship.


4. Ancient China. (Древний Китай)

Epic dynasty Ming Investiture of the gods a major deal with deification legends. Numerous mortals have been deified into the Daoist Pantheon, such as Guan Yu, the iron crutch Li And fan KuAI. The song dynasty General Yue FEI was deified during the Ming dynasty, and according to some experts, one of the three highest generals of heaven.


5. Southeast Asia and North Korea. (Юго-Восточная Азия и Северная Корея)

Various Hindu and Buddhist rulers in the past were presented as gods, especially after death, from Thailand to Indonesia.

The late North Korean leader Kim Il sung is the main object of the North Korean cult of personality, in which it is processed are clearly idealized and set himself the leader, with statues and monuments dedicated to the "eternal President", the annual celebration of his birth, paying homage to the bride and groom to the nearest statue, and the North Korean calendar is the Juche calendar, based on Kim Il-sungs date of birth.


6. Christianity. (Христианство)

Instead of the word "apotheosis", Christian theology uses in English the words "deification" or "divinization" or the Greek word theosis ". Traditional mainstream theology, both in the East and the West, considers Jesus Christ as God, who has committed a mortal existence, not as a mortal being who attained divinity. He believes that he made it possible for people to be raised to the level of sharing the divine nature: he became man to make men partakers of "divine nature" "for this is why the word became man and the Son of God became the Son of man: so that man, entering into communion with the word and thus receiving divine sonship, might become a Son of God. "For he became man that we might be made God." "The only begotten Son of God, wanting to introduce us to his divinity, assumed our nature, so that he, made man, might make men gods."

The Westminster dictionary of Christian theology contains the following in the article titled "deification":

Deification Greek theosis is for Orthodoxy the goal of every Christian. Man, according to the Bible, is made in the image and likeness of God. It is possible for man to become like God, to become deified, to become god by grace. This doctrine is based on many passages of both OT and NT e.g. Ps. 82 81.6, II Peter 1.4), and it is essentially the teaching both of St Paul, though he tends to use the language of filial adoption cf. Rom. 8.9 - 17, Gal. 4.5 - 7, and the Fourth Gospel cf. 17.21 - 23. The language of II Peter is taken up by St Irenaeus, in his famous phrase, if the Word has been made man, it is so that men may be made gods Adv. Haer V, Pref., and becomes the standard in Greek theology. In the fourth century, St. Athanasius repeats Irenaeus almost word for word, and in the fifth century, St. Cyril of Alexandria says that we shall become sons by participation Greek methexis. Deification is the central idea in the spirituality of St. Maximus the Confessor, for whom the doctrine is the corollary of the Incarnation: Deification, briefly, is the encompassing and fulfillment of all times and ages. and St. Symeon the New Theologian at the end of the tenth century writes, He who is God by nature converses with those whom he has made gods by grace, as a friend converses with his friends, face to face.


6.1. Christianity. The Roman Catholic Church. (Римско-Католическая Церковь)

The Roman Catholic Church does not use the term "apotheosis".

The Greek word is theosis is a Latin word derived from "divinization" and "deification" used in parts of the Catholic Church, from the Latin tradition. The concept has received less attention in Western theology than in the Eastern Catholic churches, but present in the Latin Church the liturgical prayers, such as deacon or priest pouring wine and a little water into the chalice: "the mystery of this water and wine may we come to share in the Divinity of Christ who humbled Himself to share in our humanity." The catechism of the Catholic Church quotes with approval Saint Athanasiuss saying, "the Son of God became man that we might become God."

Catholic theology stresses the concept of supernatural life, "a new creation and elevation, a Rebirth, is participation in and participation in the divine nature" cf. 2 Peter 1:4. In Catholic teaching there is a vital distinction between natural life and supernatural life, and "life, God, in an act of love, freely gives to the people, to raise them above their natural lives" and which they receive through prayer and the sacraments, the Catholic Church sees human existence as having the purpose of acquiring, preserving and strengthen this supernatural life.


6.2. Christianity. The Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints. (Церковь Иисуса Христа Святых последних дней)

The Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints or the Mormon Church believes in the apotheosis in the mainstream of the Christian tradition of divinization or deification, but refers to it as exaltation or eternal life, and believes that she made on "sanctification." They believe that people can live with God in eternity in families and eventually become Gods themselves, but remain subordinate to God the Father, Jesus Christ and the Holy spirit. Although the focus of the LDS Church is on Jesus of Nazareth and his atoning sacrifice for man, Mormons believe that one of the goals of the mission of Christ and his atonement is the exaltation or Christian deification of man. The third article of faith of Mormon Christianity States that all people can be saved from sin through the atonement of Jesus Christ and LDS gospel doctrine published States that all people will be saved and will be resurrected from death. However, only those who are sufficiently obedient and accept the atonement and the grace and mercy of Jesus Christ until the resurrection and final judgment will be "exalted" and get a literal Christian deification.

One popular Mormon quote, often attributed to the early Mormon leader Lorenzo snow in 1837, is "as man is, God once was: as God now is, man may be." The doctrine was first taught by Joseph Smith when he was pointing to John 5:19 in the New Testament, he says that "God himself, the Father of us all, lived on earth as Jesus Christ himself." Many LDS and not LDS scholars also have discussed the correlation between Mormon belief in exaltation and the ancient Christian theosis and deification as set forth in the early Church Fathers. A few LDS and not LDS historians specializing in the study of the early Christian Church also claim that the Mormon belief in eternal progression is more similar to the ancient Christian deification as set forth in numerous patristic writings of the 1st to the 4th century of our era than the beliefs of any other modern religion the Christian tradition.

Mormons believe that the original Christian belief in mans divine potential gradually lost their significance and importance in the centuries after the death of the apostles, as doctrinal changes in the post-Apostolic theologians has caused Christians to lose sight of the true nature of God and his purpose of creating humanity. The concept of the gods of nature, which ultimately was adopted as Christian doctrine in the 4th century set of divinity divorced from humanity, defining God as three persons United by a common divine substance. Classification of Gods point of view, the substance is not found in Scripture, but in many aspects mirrored the Greek metaphysical philosophies that are known to have influenced the thinking of Church Fathers such as Justin Martyr, Origen and Augustine. Mormons teach that on a modern-day revelation, God restored the knowledge that he is literally the father of our spirits Hebrews 12:9 and that the biblical reference to God created mankind in his image and likeness in no way an allegory. As such, the Mormons claim that as direct descendants God the Father Acts 17:28-29, people have the potential to be heirs of his glory, and joint heirs with Christ Romans 8:16-17. Glory, Mormons believe, lies not in the Gods of the creature, and in his mind: in other words, Light and truth Doctrine and covenants 93:36. Thus, the purpose of man is to grow and progress to become like heavenly Father. Mortality is seen as a crucial step in the process in which gods spirit children to gain a body which, though formed in the image of the body of the fathers, is subject to pain, sickness, temptation and death. The purpose of this earth life is to learn to choose right in the face of this opposition, thus gaining the necessary experience and wisdom. The level of intelligence we attain in this life will rise in the Resurrection doctrine and covenants 130:18-19. Then the body will be immortal as the father and the son Philippians 3:21, but the degree of fame where everyone who wants to resurrect it depends on the final decision Revelation 20:13, 1 Corinthians 15:40-41. Those who are worthy to return to gods presence, we can continue the progress in the fullness of the glory of the Gods, which Mormons call eternal life or exaltation doctrine and covenants 76.

The LDS concept of the apotheosis / exaltation is reflected in LDS Scripture and made a member of the quorum of the twelve apostles: "though stretched to our problems, living righteously and enduring well we can eventually become sufficiently more like Jesus in our traits and attributes, that one day we can dwell in the presence of fathers forever" Neal Maxwell, October 1997.

In early 2014, the LDS Church essay was published on the official Church website specifically addressing the foundations, history, and official beliefs regarding apotheosis. The essay examines the biblical foundations of the faith, the teachings of the early Church Fathers on the subject of deification, and the teachings of LDS Church leaders, starting with Joseph Smith.


7. In art

In art a practical question: the height of the figure to divine level entails certain conventions. So what genre is the apotheosis exists in Christian art as in other forms of art. The features of the apotheosis genre may be seen in subjects that emphasize the divinity of Christ and that depict Holy persons "in glory" - that is, in their roles as "God revealed".

Later artists have used the concept for motives ranging from genuine respect for the deceased Constantine Brumidis the fresco the apotheosis of Washington on the dome of the Capitol building of the United States in Washington, D.C., to review art Salvador Dali or getting the apotheosis of Homer, in the mock-heroic and burlesque apotheoses for comedic effect.

Many modern leaders use artistic images, if not the theology of apotheosis. Examples include Rubenss a picture of James I of England at the banqueting house, the expression of the divine right of kings or Henry IV of France, or Appianis the apotheosis of Napoleon. H. S. Niehaus-designed the apotheosis of Saint Louis IX of France became a symbol of St. Louis, Missouri. This term was used in a figurative sense to denote elevation of a dead leader is often one who was assassinated and / or tortured into some superhuman, charismatic and an effective erasing of all errors and contradictions that were associated with his name in life - for example, Abraham Lincoln in the US, Lenin in USSR, Yitzchak Rabin in Israel, or Kim Jong-Il in North Korea.


8. In music. (В музыке)

Apotheosis in music refers to the appearance of the theme in Grand or exalted form. It is a musical equivalent of the apotheosis genre in visual art, especially if the topic is somehow associated with historical figures and dramatic characters. When crowning the end of a large-scale work the apotheosis functions as the end, by analogy with the art of rhetoric.

The apotheosis plenty of moments in the music, and the word itself appears in some cases. List of compositions by françois Couperin has 3 suites under the name of "Apotheoses" of 1724, Hector Berlioz used "Apotheose" as the title of the last of his Grande Symphonie funebre Et triomphale for, and work written in 1846 for the opening of the monument to Francis, killed in the war. Two of Peter Ilyich Tchaikovskys ballet, Sleeping Beauty and the Nutcracker, contain apotheoses as finals, the same goes for Ludwig Minkuss La Bayadere. Igor Stravinsky composed two ballets, Apollo and Orpheus, which contains episodes titled "Apotheose". The final table of Maurice tangles MA simple lOye also called "Apotheose". Czech composer Karel Huss, concerned in 1970 about arms proliferation and degradation of the environment, named his musical response apotheosis for this earth. Aram Khachaturian, called a segment of his ballet Spartacus "sunrise and apotheosis". Richard Wagner, referring to the lively rhythms which permeate Beethoven, Ludwig van Symphony No. 7, called it the "apotheosis of the dance". Alexander Glazunovs ballet the seasons, Op. 67 has as the final move:- autumn: scene and apotheosis.

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Apotheosis definition of apotheosis by The Free Dictionary.

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Apotheosis Origin and meaning of apotheosis by Online Etymology.

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