Diving physics - sports science. Physics diving physics aspects, which directly influence underwater diver and that the explanations of the effects divers an ..


Diving physics

Physics diving physics aspects, which directly influence underwater diver and that the explanations of the effects divers and their equipment are subject to underwater, which differ from the normal human experience of water.

These consequences are mainly the effects of immersion in water, the hydrostatic pressure at depth and the pressure on the respiratory gases. Understanding physics useful in considering physiological effects of diving and the dangers and risks of diving.


1. The laws of physics with a special focus on diving. (Законы физики с особым акцентом на дайвинг)

The main laws of physics that describe the influence of the underwater environment a diving diver and of diving equipment are:

  • Daltons law - in mixtures of breathing gases the concentration of the individual components of the gas mixture are proportional to their partial pressure partial pressure is a useful measure in order to Express the limits for avoiding nitrogen narcosis and oxygen toxicity.
  • The Henrys law - as pressure increases the amount of gas absorbed by the tissues of the human body increase. This mechanism is involved in nitrogen narcosis, oxygen toxicity and decompression sickness.
  • Boyles law - as pressure changes, the volume of gases in the divers body and soft equipment changes too. The volume of gas in a rigid container, such as a divers lung or compensation of buoyancy decreases with increasing external pressure, while the diver descends in the water. In addition, the volume of gas in such non-rigid containers increases on the ascent. Changes in the volume of gases in the divers and divers equipment affect buoyancy. This creates a positive feedback on ascent and descent. The amount of open circuit gas breathed by the diver, the pressure increases and depth.
  • Gay-Lussacs second law – as temperature increases the pressure in a diving cylinder increases initially described by Amontons, Guillaume. Therefore, the diver who enters cold water with a warm diving cylinder, for instance after a recent quick fill, finds the gas pressure in the cylinder falls unexpectedly large amount at the initial stage of the dive as the gas in the cylinder cools.
  • The leash law is the refractive index of water is similar to the cornea of the eye - 30% greater than air. This is the reason a diver cannot see clearly underwater without a diving mask with an internal airspace.
  • The principle of buoyancy of Archimedes - ignoring the minor influence of the surface tension of the object, wholly or partially immersed in fluid, will be fed by a force equal to the weight of liquid displaced by the object. Thus, if the water is liquid, the weight of the volume of water displaced compared to the weight of the materials in the divers body and in the divers equipment determine whether the diver floats or sinks. Buoyancy control, and be able to maintain neutral buoyancy in particular, is an important skill security. The diver needs to understand buoyancy to be able to work safely and efficiently drysuits, buoyancy compensators, diving weighting systems and lifting bags.

2. Physical characteristics of water are most relevant to divers. (Физические характеристики воды являются наиболее актуальными для дайверов)

Physical effects of water or the underwater environment:

  • Gases used in diving have very different thermal conductivities, Helixa, and to a lesser extent, Trimix conducts heat faster than air, because the content of helium and argon heats up slower than air, so technical divers breathing gases containing helium can cause them to dry suits with argon.
  • Heat transfer – the heat transfer from the body of the diver in the water faster than in air, and to avoid excessive heat loss leading to hypothermia, heat insulation in the form of suits or active heating is used.
  • The thermal conductivity of water is higher than air. As water conducts heat 20 times more than air, a diver in cold water needs to warm your body wetsuits to avoid hypothermia.
  • Argon: 16 MW / m / K, air: 26 MW / m / K, neoprene: 50 MW / m / K, wool: 70 MW / m / K, helium: 142 MW / m / K, Water: 600 MW / m / K.
  • Pressure is the total pressure on the diver is the sum of the local atmospheric pressure and hydrostatic pressure.
  • The density of water, the divers body and equipment determines the buoyancy of the divers and the use of floating equipment. and density is a factor in the formation of hydrostatic pressure. Divers use materials of high density such as lead for diving weighing system and low density materials such as air, buoyancy compensators and lifting bags.
  • The absorption of light and color loss underwater. The red end of the spectrum of light is absorbed even in shallow water. Divers use artificial light underwater to reveal these absorbed colours. In deeper waters there is no light from the surface penetrates.
  • Under pressure, gases are highly compressible, and liquid is almost incompressible. Held air spaces in the divers bodies and gas in the flexible contract equipment as the diver descends and expand as the diver ascends.
  • The absolute dynamic viscosity of water is higher about 100 times than that of air. This increases the resistance on an object moving through the water, and it requires more effort to move in the water depending on speed.

3. Physical phenomena of interest to divers. (Физических явлений, представляющих интерес для дайверов)

The physical phenomena found in large bodies of water, which can have a practical impact on divers include:

  • Tidal currents and changes in sea level due to the influence of gravitational forces and the rotation of the Earth. Some dive sites can be safely dived at slack water when the tidal cycle turns and the current slows. Strong currents can cause problems for divers. Buoyancy control can be difficult when a strong current meets a vertical surface. Divers consume more breathing gas when swimming against the current. Divers on the surface can be separated from their cover boat for the tide. On the other hand, drift diving is only possible when there is a reasonable current.
  • In lakes subject to geothermal activity, the temperature of the deeper water may be warmer than the surface of the water. This usually leads to air convection.
  • Water at near-freezing temperatures is less dense than slightly warmer water - the maximum density of water is about 4°C - so when close to freezing, the water can be slightly warmer at depth than at the surface.
  • Ocean currents can transport water thousands of miles away, and it could produce water with different temperature and salinity in the region. Some ocean currents have a huge impact on the local climate for example, warm water from the temperate North Atlantic drift the climate of the North-West coast of Europe. The velocity of the water can affect the planning of the dive and safety.
  • Where cool fresh water flows into the warm sea, fresh water can float over the denser salt water, so the temperature rises as the diver descends.
  • Haloclines, or strong vertical gradients in salinity. For example, where the fresh water meets the sea, the fresh water floats over the denser salt water and may not immediately mix. Sometimes visual effects, such as shimmering and reflection, occur at the boundary between the layers, because the refractive indices differ.
  • Thermoclines, or sudden changes in temperature. Where the temperature is higher than the water temperature, shallow water may be warmed by the air and the sunlight but deeper water remains cold, which led to a decrease in temperature as a diver descends. This temperature change can be concentrated on a small vertical interval, when this is called the thermocline.
  • The influence of weather conditions such as wind, which causes waves, and changes of temperature and atmospheric pressure, and in water. Not even a very strong wind may prevent diving because of the increased risk of becoming lost at sea or injured. Low water temperature makes it necessary for divers to wear diving suits and can cause problems such as freezing of diving regulators.

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