Heuristics and sports - sports science. Heuristics a few simple strategies, decision-making used to achieve specific objectives quickly and effectively, and ..


Heuristics and sports

Heuristics a few simple strategies, decision-making used to achieve specific objectives quickly and effectively, and is usually implemented in the sport. Many sports require the ability to make quick decisions under time pressure, and the correct use of heuristics is essential for many of these decisions. How should a soccer player decide whether to shoot for goal or pass the ball, and to whom to pass it? How to make basketball coaches decided that the player has to shoot the last shot? In such conditions, athletes, coaches and judges has no time to consider the complex details of the decision. Instead, they use simple strategies based on limited information. In addition, some sports skills like catching a ball in baseball, it can be done successfully by following simple rules and heuristic methods despite the computational complex parts involved in the action.

The following table provides a list of efficient heuristics for decision-making in sport:


1. The gaze heuristic. (Взгляд эвристика)

The gaze heuristic is used by people and animals for catching flying objects. This entails repair one glance at the object and adjustment of the running speed so that the angle remains constant while approaching the object, see the three decision rules in the table above. Empirical evidence shows that experienced ball-catchers use the gaze heuristic and similar heuristics, as do dogs when trying to catch a Frisbee.


2. Take the first. (Взять первый)

Take the first TTF is a heuristics that can be used by players to choose among practical options. There is evidence that experienced players do not try to generate all possible variants. Instead, they seem to rely on the order in which options are spontaneously in a particular situation and choose the first option that comes to mind.


3. The recognition heuristic. (Признание эвристической)

The recognition heuristic relies on partial ignorance to make powerful conclusions. It is based on rule":" if one of two objects is recognized and the other is not, then infer that the recognized object has a higher value against the criterion. Research on predicting the results of matches in the 2005 mens tennis Wimbledon, the competition showed that predictions based on recognition was equal to or better than predictions based on official ATP rankings and the seeding of the Wimbledon experts, while online betting has led to more accurate predictions.


4. Take-the-best. (Возьми-самая-лучшая)

Take-the-best TTB is a heuristic for making inferences about known options based on limited search. Take the best search signals in the order of their action, starting from the valid signal. If this signal is to distinguish between two compared objects, an information search structure and the object with the higher value on this signal determined as having the higher criterion value. If the cue does not discriminate between objects, TTB moves on following the right signal to continue on the way to Kiev with the purpose of action until he comes upon a Cue that does not discriminate. Some evidence from the NBA shows that TTB can predict the game results, as well as optimizing model based on Bayes rule.


5. Hot-hand heuristic. (Горячий-рука эвристический)

Hot-hand heuristic is associated with the belief in the hot hand phenomenon. Namely, the people, including the athletes themselves, it seems that the player who held a successful series of attempts, more chances for success on subsequent attempts. Hot-hand heuristic used for making decisions about distribution. For example, playmakers and coaches use it in organizing the game by distributing more balls to players who are on a winning streak, or to organize a better defense against those players.

However, the hot phenomenon is quite controversial. Some evidence from basketball supports the argument that the hot hand belief is an illusion, based on a systematic miscalculation of the peoples of the random sequences. In contrast, recent studies from volleyball suggest that belief in hot-hand is justified and hence useful for making good decisions, the selection in the game.

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