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Mechanics of Oscar Pistoriuss running blades - sports science. The mechanics of running blades used by South African Paralympic athlete Oscar Pistorius runne ..



Mechanics of Oscar Pistorius's running blades
                                     

Mechanics of Oscar Pistoriuss running blades

The mechanics of running blades used by South African Paralympic athlete Oscar Pistorius runner depend on special carbon fiber-reinforced polymer prosthesis. Pistorius a double below the knee amputations and competes in both the disabled and amputee T44 athletics event. Pistoriuss right to work in an international disabled events sanctioned by the International Association of athletics federations.

Pistorius began its work in 2004 after a Rugby knee injury, which led to the restoration of the University high performance centre Pretorias with coach ampie Louw. His first racing blades were installed on the South African prosthetist Francois Vanderwatt. Because he could not find a suitable running in Pretoria, Vanderwatt ordered to be a local engineer in the "hanger orthopedic group". These quickly broke down, and Vanderwatt referred Pistorius to American prosthetist and Paralympic Sprinter Brian Frasure to be fitted for blades carbon fiber Icelandic company Ossur.

Pistoriuss involvement in sprint wheelchair international competitions in 2007, a question was raised about the use of race, and the IAAF amended its rules to ban the use of "any technical device that incorporates springs, wheels or any other element that provides the user with an advantage over another athlete not using such a device." After initial research, Pistorius rules of admission to the competition in accordance with these Rules of the IAAF. After was presented for further research, the Arbitration court CAS ruled that his prosthetic was not shown to provide a net competitive advantage over biological legs. In 2012, Pistorius received a diploma and competed in the Olympic games 2012 and Paralympic games 2012, using its run, becoming the first amputee Sprinter to work in the Olympic games.

                                     

1. Athletics Pistoriuss prostheses. (Легкая атлетика Pistoriuss протезы)

Blades of lower leg prostheses, meaning they replace legs and feet, amputated below knee BK. They were developed by medical engineer van Phillips, who included Flex-Foot, Inc. in 1984, and in 2000 sold the company Ossur, which is now, in 2012, releasing the blade. They are designed to store kinetic energy like a spring, allowing the owner to jump in and work effectively.

Carbon fiber actually carbon fiber-reinforced polymer, and is a strong, lightweight material is used in a number of applications, including sporting goods like baseball bats, car parts, helmets, boats, bicycles and other equipment where Rigidity and high strength-to-ratio to-weight is very important. The polymer used for this equipment is normally epoxy, but other polymers are also used, depending on the use of other reinforcing fibers can also be included. In the process of manufacturing the blade, the sheets of impregnated material are cut into square sheets and pressed onto a form to produce the final shape. From 30 to 90 sheets can be layered, depending on the anticipated weight of the athlete, and the mold is then autoclaved fuse the sheets into a solid plate. This method reduces the amount of air bubbles that can cause breaks. Once the result is cooled, cut into the shape of the blade. The finished blade is attached to a fiber socket of carbon, which is an intimate fit to each of Pistorius legs. These are custom made and constitute the bulk of the total cost, along with the rating and configuration of the finished prosthesis. Each limb costs between 15-18$.000 dollars.

Pistorius uses the same blade Ossur in 2004. He was born without fibulae and with malformed feet, and his legs were amputated about halfway between knee and ankle, so he could wear prosthetic legs. He wears socks and pads that are visible above the nest to reduce friction and prevent blisters and outlets have straps in the front that can be tightened to make the denture fit more tightly.

Pistorius uses a custom studded trims on the blades. Before the development of pads, his spikes were changed roughing the surface and applying over-the-counter spines manually, but the results using this method were inconsistent. The study was conducted at Ossur HF in Iceland the laboratory using a pressure-sensitive treadmill and film at 500 frames per second to measure the blade to strike, and released the spike platform, which includes the soles of the two machine-molded pieces of foam of different density to soften the blow, with a carbon fibre plate on the bottom. The developers added a pickguard with contact cement which can be quickly removed with the application of heat when on the Playground spike needs to be changed.

Due to the curved design of the blade should be slightly larger than the runners of the biological leg and foot. The blades replace the hinge of an ankle with an elastic compression that bends and releases the blade with every step, so uncompressed blade leaves the user standing on tiptoe. They are designed to move forward, so No heel Support in the back. According to Josh McHugh of Wired magazine, "the cheetahs seem to bounce on their own. It is impossible to stand on them, and hard to move slowly. After they leave, the cheetahs are extremely difficult to control."

                                     

2. How the blades work. (Как лопасти работают)

In 2007, Pistorius applied to a non-disabled track meets. It was first adopted, but questions quickly arise About whether the blades gave him an unfair advantage. After an initial study showed that the blade offers no advantage, the international Association of athletics federations the IAAF has changed its rules a ban on the use of technical devices that give an advantage and to exclude him will be ineligible to compete. Pistorius challenged the decision of additional research and was restored in the court of arbitration for Sport CAS in 2008, which means he can continue to work in the non-disabled as long as he uses the equipment which was examined in the study.

Performance Pistoriuss at the beginning of the non-wheelchair races questions raised due to two main factors: his pattern of running the race and the foot-rotation. Most of the sprinters Spring out of the blocks with the fastest time and slow down as the race progresses, but Pistorius ran a "negative split", starting slowly and building up speed in the second half of the race, although he no longer uses this template. His average time was also less for the 400m, if you compare with other runners than 200m. Disputes over the use of the blades is maintained, however, the study provides extensive details about how they work in the program, and other studies are expected to follow.

Rooms for guests with reduced mobility sprinters have calves and ankles that return and increase the energy supply of your hips and knees, while Pistorius compensates for the additional work because he had no calves, and ankles, and associated tendons and muscles. The analysis, published in the journal of engineering & technology estimates that when using the blades, Pistorius was able to generate power from the gluteal and quadriceps muscles that a normal Sprinter would. Other sources also credit the core muscles of the abdomen and faster arm swing. His coach estimates that about 85% of his power comes from his hips and the rest from knees. This leads to a gait that waddles a bit like Pistorius wobble his upper body to balance the spring action of the blades. The blades compress under his weight, then release as he moves forward, providing forward thrust from the tips as they return to their molded shape. As they spring, he turned them slightly to the side and throws them forward for the next step.

Pistorius is always slow early in the race, because the flexible blades do not provide thrust blocks. Pistorius needs to begin an exit from an awkward position, swing the leg out and pop right out of the blocks to start running when the selected method to push with a horizontal force. For the first 30 meters of the race, he keeps his head down and takes short, quick steps. As he sets the rhythm, he can raise his head and increase his speed. While some runners jog up and down, losing energy, Pistorius directs the energy forward, a few looking like its rolling on wheels. It also compensates for ankle adjustments do on the curves, breaking curves into short, straight lines. According to his coach, Adam Lowe, Pistorius may be able to use inside skinny to make the effort and get out of turn will be faster.

                                     

3.1. Research. The study bruggerman. (Исследование bruggerman)

To resolve questions about the blades, Pistorius was asked to take part in a series of scientific tests in November 2007 at the German sport University Cologne with Professor of biomechanics Peter Bruggerman and technical experts of the IAAF Elio Locatelli. After two days of tests, Bruggerman reported that Pistorius used about 25% less power consumption than non-disabled athletes when he reached the specified speed. The study also found that it showed significant differences in the sprint mechanics are significantly different, the maximum vertical earth regain strength, and all the positive, or return energy was almost three times higher than the human ankle. Energy loss in the blade during the resting phase, when the foot was on the ground was estimated at 9.3%, while that of the normal ankle joint was measured at 42.4%, showing more than 30%. Bruggemanns analysis stated that the blades allowed lower energy consumption at the same speed, and that energy loss in the blade is significantly less than in the human ankle at maximum speed. In December of the same year, Bruggerman said Die Welt newspaper that Pistorius "has considerable advantages over athletes without prosthetic limbs who were tested by us. It was more than a few percentage points. I didnt expect it to be so clear." The study was published in 2008 in the sports technology, but later scientists said that the analysis "not enough variables into consideration". Commentators also argue that the study of the IAAF does not accurately determine whether cheetahs confer a net advantage because measuring the net advantage or disadvantage imposed on an athlete using the Cheetah is not possible given current scientific knowledge. Secondly, the study of the IAAF can not measure the performance of Pistorius vs the corresponding control. The IAAF used five disabled athletes who run a 400-meter races in times like this, to Pistorius, as controls. However, because Pistorius was relatively new to the sport is running, it may not have been properly trained to maximize their physical potential and achieve its maximum performance in the study of athletics was conducted. In March 2007, approximately 9 months prior to the study athletics has not been conducted, the coach of Pistorius said that Oscar Pistorius is not enough trained to achieve the upper body is proportionate to the upper body of the most elite sprinters. To obtain the most accurate understanding of how the prostheses affect the performance Pistoriuss, it needs to be in comparison with athletes with the same physical potential. Consequently, the study of athletics can be flawed because he compared Pistorius, who may have the physical potential to run faster than his current times, against athletes at their peak.



                                     

3.2. Research. Weyand et al. the study. (Weyand и соавт. исследование)

In 2008 a team of seven researchers conducted tests at rice University, including Peter Weyand, Hugh Herr, Rodger Kram, Matthew bundle and Alena Grabowski. The team had collected metabolic and mechanical data by indirect calorimetry and ground reaction measurements at Pistoriuss performance at a constant speed, level treadmill, and found that electricity consumption by 3.8% lower than mean values for the elite who are not disabled long-distance runners, 6.7% lower than for medium long-distance runners, and 17% lower than for non-wheelchair 400M sprint runners. Sprint speed 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0 m / s, Pistorius made a longer leg in contact with the ground, the shorter the rotation of the feet and lower average vertical force than able-bodied sprinters. The group came to the conclusion that running on the blades appears to be physiologically similar but mechanically different from running with biological legs. The study was published a few months later in the Journal of applied physiology. Cram also said that Pistoriuss norm "of energy consumption was lower than the average person but comparable to other highly trained athletes."

The lightness and stiffness of the blades compared to muscle and bone may allow blade runners to swing his legs faster than non-wheelchair runners. In the comments to the article by Peter Weyand and biomechanist Matthew bundle noted that the study had shown that Pistorius can move his legs 15.7 percent faster than most world record sprinters, allowing for a 15-30% increase in speed sprint.

                                     

3.3. Research. Grabowski and others research. (Грабовский и другие исследования)

In 2008, the research team, including Alena Grabowski, Rodger Kram and Hugh Herr conducted a follow-up study of individual patients with running, which was published in biology letters. Each of the six patients who suffered leg performance was compared to their biological leg. The researchers measured time to swing the legs and the force applied to the surface on a high speed treadmill in the laboratory of biomechanics at the orthopedic specialty hospital, and also studied video of sprint runners from the Olympics and Paralympics. They found no difference in time to swing his legs at different speeds, and recorded the times to swing the legs similarly, non-disabled sprinters. They also found that single running reduced the foot to ground force production of the subjects of the runners by an average of 9%. Because the productive forces, generally considered to be the most important factor in running speed, the researchers came to the conclusion that this decline is due to the limited sprinters top speed. Grabowski also found that patients, as a rule, increased their leg swing times to compensate for the power shortage.

                                     

3.4. Research. Other discussions. (Другие обсуждения)

The debate continues about the relative advantage or disadvantage of using the blade. Researchers and analysts also noted that research is being conducted on a level, stationary treadmills, and not an indication of performance from starting blocks or on the actual curved tracks. They also do not take into account differences in physiology between amputees and not amputees, who have such factors as musculature, blade height and weight and differences in blood circulation because of the history of their loss of limbs.

                                     

4. Paralympics 2012. (Паралимпиаде-2012)

Disputes about the consequences of running the length of the blade stood at the Paralympic games of 2012, as the Brazilian runner Alan Oliveira and USAs Blake Leeper runner changed to a more Jogging for a few months to Paralympic games 2012. This has led to a noticeable improvement in their time. Pistorius complained after the 200m race that the blades are provided artificially lengthened running progress, which would be a violation of the rules of the IPC, regardless of what the blades were within the acceptable values of height for interested athletes. His complaint was supported by single-leg runners, including Jerome singleton and Jack swift, who called for Т43 T44 and dual blade single blade classes should be separated in future events as single blade runners were unable to adjust the height of the prostheses, and must always correspond to the length of their biological leg with the blade.

Improved time and stream the results of the race presented a public demonstration of how blade length affects performance. Step length Pistorius was actually 9% more 2.2 m vs 2.0 m, but Oliveira took more strides 99 vs 92. The combination of stride length and running speed led to a clearly unusual performance with the longer blades. Management Pistoriuss made a statement saying that Pistorius is always 1.84 meters tall, regardless of what prostheses he wears, and that the decision to maintain this height for his running was a question of justice.

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Debate continues about Blade Runners edge Futurity.

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The Design and Controversy of Running Blade Prosthetics.

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The bouncing mechanism of running in a transfemoral amputee.

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