Julia Domna - deified people. Julia Domna was a Roman Empress from 193 to 211. She was born in Emesa in Roman Syria in the Arab family, the priests of the de ..

Julia Domna

Julia Domna

Julia Domna was a Roman Empress from 193 to 211. She was born in Emesa in Roman Syria in the Arab family, the priests of the deity Elahabalovi. In 187 she married a Libyan-born Septimius Severus, who at that time was Governor of the Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis. They had two sons Caracalla and geta. The civil war for the Roman throne in 193 broke out, and soon Severus declared himself Emperor. The war ended in 197 with the defeat of the last Severuss opponents.

As the Empress Domna was known for her political, social and philosophical influences. Shes got such titles as "mother of the invincible camp." After the eldest of her sons, Caracalla began to reign with his father, she was briefly co-Empress with the Caracallas wife, Fulvia Plautilla, until the latter fell into disgrace. After the death of the North in 211, Domna became the first Empress Dowager in order to rank the combination of Pia Felix Augusta ", which could have wider powers will be conferred upon her, than what was customary for the Roman Empress-mother. Her sons ascended the throne. They had a relationship conflict and Domna acted as their mediator, but Caracalla had his brother geta later in the same year killed. Domna committed suicide in 217 hearing his own murder Caracallas in the course of his campaign against Parthia, where she accompanied him to Antioch, now Antakya, Turkey.

After the death of Domna, her sister Julia Maesa successfully fought for political power. The severan dynasty was restored to power with the accession of grandson Maesas, Elagabal, 218. Dynasty retained the power to 235 during the reign of Severus Alexander, cousin and successor of Elagabal ended. This event marked the beginning of the crisis of the third century.


1. Family background. (Семья фон)

Julia Domna was born in Emesa modern day HOMS in Syria, about 160 ad in the Arab family, which was part of the Emesan dynasty. Her name Domna is an archaic Arabic word meaning "black". She was the youngest daughter of the high priest of Baal, Julius Bastian, and sister Julia Maesa. Through Maesa and her husband Julius Avitus, Domna had two nieces: Julia Soaemias and Julia Mamaea, the respective mothers of future Roman emperors Elagabal R. and 218-222 Severus Alexander 222-235 RV.

Domnas ancestors were priest kings of the famous temple Elahabalovi. The family had enormous wealth and was promoted to Roman senatorial aristocracy. Before marriage, Domna inherited the estate of her fathers great-uncle Julius Agrippa, a former leading Centurion.


1.1. Family background. Marriage. (Брак)

The Augustan history tells us that after the loss of his first wife around 186, Septimus Severus heard about a woman in Syria, which was foretold that she would marry a king, and therefore Severus sought her as his wife. This woman was a blast Furnace. Bastian accepted the offer Severus a marriage in early 187, and in the summer the couple got married in Lugdunum, modern Lyon, France, where Severus was Governor. The marriage was a happy one and Severus cherished Domna and her political views. Blast furnace because of "the excellent reputation" by applying yourself letters and philosophy. She bore two sons, Lucius Septimius Bassian Caracalla in 188 in Lugdunum, and Publius Septimius geta in the following year in Rome.


2. Civil war. (Гражданская война)

After the Roman Emperor Commodus was killed without an heir in 192, many candidates ran for the throne, including Domnas husband Severus. Senator elder, Pertinax was appointed by the Praetorian guard as the new Emperor of Rome. But when Pertinax do not meet the requirements of Guards, he was killed too. Another politician, Julian Didius, was summoned to Rome and appointed as Emperor. Severus, running North to Rome, Julian overthrew and executed him.

Severus claimed the title of Emperor in 193. At clodius Albinus, the powerful Governor of Britain, with the rank of Caesar and heir, Severus could focus on his other rival for the throne, Pescennius Niger, whom he defeated in the battle of Issus in 194. Then, when Severus declared openly his son Caracalla as successor, clodius Albinus was proclaimed Emperor by his troops. In the battle of Lugdunum in 197, Severus defeated and killed Albinus, establishing himself as Emperor. Thus, Domna became Empress consort.


3. Power and influence. (Власть и влияние)

Unlike most Imperial wives, amazing Domna accompanied her husband in his military campaigns and had remained in camp with the army. In edition Barbara levick, Domna "was to surpass all other empresses in the number and variety of its official name." The honorary title was awarded to a blast Furnace, similar to those given to Faustina the younger, including "the invincible mother of the camp", and the master of Augustus Augustuss mother. She was respected and appreciated for its work quality indicators and evidence are the coins minted with her portrait, by mentioning its title, and also as "Julia Augusta". The name Pia Felix Augusta, which she received after the death of Severus was "perhaps the way to hint that the blast Furnace has absorbed and continues her husbands attributes" after his death.

A few medallions for blast Furnaces was issued Severus already 207, the reversal of which "Vesta mater" mother Vesta, which, according to Molly M. Lindner, "may refer to calling Vesta during the prayers and supplications that of the vestal virgins, when they prayed publicly". According to Lindner,

While some scholars have suggested that Julia Domnas medallions honor the rebuilding of the temple of Vesta, the Empress, Melanie Sobocinski Grunow indicated that it took more than fifteen years, and Julia Domna was another motivation, perhaps one connected to your role as a mother of Septimius Severus heirs, as the Legend of mishaps leads.


4. The transfer of power. (Передача власти)

When Severus died in Eboracum in 211 in York, Julia became the mediator between his two sons, Caracalla and geta, who were to rule as joint emperors, according to their fathers wishes expressed in the will. However, two young men were discordant relationships, and geta was killed Caracallas soldiers in December of the same year. Getas then the name was removed from inscriptions and his image blurred in the result of a damnatio memoriae on. As explained by caillan Davenport:

spent most of his reign outside of Rome, leaving the city in the late or early 212 213 in the campaign against the Alamanni on the Rhine, on which he claimed the title Germanicus Maxim. After the rocky - and almost deadly - crossing of the Hellespont, the Emperor and his court established in Nicomedia in Bithynia during winter 213 / 4. Caracallas mother, Julia Domna, was accompanied by his son on his provincial tour. There is only indirect evidence of its presence in Germany, but it is, of course, at the court in Nicomedia, and then lived in Antioch in 216 see § death below.


4.1. The transfer of power. Death. (Смерть)

As formulated by William S. Greenwalt, 217, "Caracalla started his Parthian war for the rejection of his proposal of marrying the Parthian Princess. Domna accompanied Caracalla to Antioch, where she created the office while he moved to the border". During the campaign, Caracalla was killed by a Roman soldier. Domna decided to commit suicide after he learned about the rebellion, perhaps the decision hastened by the fact that she was suffering from breast cancer, and a reluctance to return to private life. Maesa restored severan dynasty in 218, the dynasty still ruled until 235. Domnas body was brought to Rome and placed in the Sepulcrum Caesaris, S. L. and perhaps a separate chamber in the Mausoleum of Augustus. Later, however, both her bones and geta were transferred Maesa to the mausoleum of Hadrian.


5. Heritage. (Наследие)

Domna remember for urged philostratus to write the Life of Apollonius of Tyana. Blast furnace, believed to have died before philostratus could finish his work in eight volumes. It also influenced the Roman fashion: hairstyle that she would wear Roman Empress Cornelia Salonen and the Palmyran Queen Zenobia. Blast furnace seems to have introduced the wearing of wigs, the custom of the Assyrians to Rome.

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Roman Imperial: Julia Domna, AD 211 215 London Coin Centre Inc. oncoi.

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