The word "barbecue" is derived from the Arabic word منقل manqal means "portable" and originally referred to portable indoor heaters are mostly replaced by Western-type stoves. Grill typically used for grilling various cuts of meat, such as steak, hamburgers, kebab, shish kebab, chicken wings and chicken Breasts. Roasted vegetables, salads and other cold dishes accompany the meal. In Turkey, ayran or salgam common drinks during parties grill and raki. The grill also applies to social gathering the whole family or friends in the gardens or picnic areas similar to South African braai. In Isra ...
A dacha) - seasonal or year-round second home, often located in the exurbs of Russian and other former Soviet countries. Cottage or cabin served as the familys main or only home or outbuilding is not considered a country, although in recent years some of the cottages were converted into year-round residences, and Vice versa. The word "cottage" coming from "to give" or "give", originally given the land allotted to the king, to the nobles, and the country in Soviet times, highlighting in some Western countries -- a piece of land allocated to citizens by the local government for gardening or growing vegetables for personal consumption). Over time the name of the Land was used in the construction of it. In some cases, owners take their dachas year-round and rent them to urban residents as summer retreats. People living in the cottages, commonly called "summer residents", the term usually refers not only gardeners, but also a particular way of life. Russian term often have no exact equivalent in English.
Dachas are very common in Russia, and also widespread in most parts of the territory of the former USSR and some countries of the former Eastern bloc. Surveys conducted in 1993-1994 to offer about 25% of Russian families living in large cities testify. Most dachas are in colonies of dachas and garden plots near large cities. These clusters have existed since the Soviet era and consist of numerous small, typically 600 square meters, 0.15 hectares of land. They were originally designed only for citizens and for growing small gardens for food. Gardeners use their garden to fishing, hunting and other recreation. The cultivation of vegetable crops is still seen as an important part of country life – remains popular.
Dachas appeared as a small estate given as a gift to the king, and was popular among the Russian upper and middle class still. Under Soviet rule many of the cottages were public, and were given to the elite of the Communist party of the Soviet Union Communist party. The government of the Russian Federation continues its state dachas used by the President and other officials. They were extremely popular in the USSR because people were not able to buy land and build a house where they wanted, and because they have no opportunity to spend their time and money.
As a rule severely restricted the size and type of dacha buildings for ordinary people during the Soviet time, permitted features such as large attics or glazed verandas, became extremely widespread and often oversized. In the period from 1960 to 1985 legal limitations were especially strict: only single-storey summer houses without permanent heating and with living area less than 60 m2 646 sq m was permitted as a second residence, although the old villas that do not meet these requirements continued to exist. In the 1980s, urban planners have relaxed the rules, and since 1990 All of these limitations have been eliminated.
1.1. History. Origin
The first dachas in Russia began to appear in the 17th century, initially we are talking about small estates in the country, which were given to loyal vassals of the king. In archaic Russian, the word dacha means something given, from the verb "to give" – "give". In the age of Enlightenment, Russian aristocracy used their dachas for social and cultural activities, which were usually accompanied by masquerade balls and fireworks. With the advent of the industrial revolution in Russia led to the rapid growth of the urban population and the rich urban residents increasingly desired to escape heavily polluted cities, at least temporarily. By the end of the 19th century, the dacha became a favorite summer vacation for the higher and middle classes of Russian society. In tsarist times, country houses usually have gardens, but not much is used for growing food. Anton Chekhov wrote a short story called "gardeners" in 1885, about citizens, honeymooners, summer living a simple life walks in the countryside.
1.2. History. USSR. (СССР)
After the Russian revolution, most dachas were nationalized. Some were converted into vacation homes for factory workers, while other, usually better quality, were distributed among the prominent functionaries of the Communist party and the newly emerged cultural and scientific elite. Almost all the cottages remained in the ownership of the state, and rights to use them, typically, was canceled when she was dismissed giving passengers or fell into disfavor with the rulers of the state. Building new dachas required permission from senior officials and are rarely granted during the first years of the Soviet Union. The top of the Soviet leaders all had their dachas, and Joseph Stalins favourite was in Gagra, Abkhazia. New villas began to be built in large quantities during the 1930-ies, and dacha colonies for artists, or soldiers, or various classes of party functionaries, started to form.
There were legal size restrictions for dacha houses in the Soviet era. They should be no more than 60 m2 646 sq. ft. of living space, and only one story high. For this reason, they usually had a mansard roof, which was considered by authorities as just a big loft or attic, not a second floor. Often they were poorly equipped and without indoor plumbing, dachas, however, the solution for millions of working families, to have their own form of summer recreation. Having a piece of land, also provides the opportunity for residents to indulge themselves in growing their own fruit and vegetables. In the years before and after world war II, the cultivation of vegetable crops in suburban areas is significant, because of the failure of the planned Soviet agricultural program to supply enough fresh produce. Many gardeners grew crops for the market. Since then, growing garden crops is of less importance, but still widespread. Many Russian dacha owners still see gardening as a key value of Dachnik culture. Keeping historical food shortages in mind, they take great pride in growing their own food instead of buying it in the store.
The period after world war II saw moderate growth in dacha development. Since there was no law banning the construction of dachas, people began occupying unused land near cities and towns, grow gardens and buildings, sheds, huts, and more prominent dwellings that served as dachas. As time passed, the number of settlers grew and the government had to officially recognise their right to Amateur farming. In 1955 legislation introduced a new type of legal entity in the Soviet legal system, the growers of the horticultural partnership sadovodcheskoye similar to community gardens in other countries. The partnership of gardeners have received the right to permanent use of land exclusively for agricultural purposes and permission to connect to public electrical and water supply networks. In 1958, another form of organization was introduced, a cooperative for dacha construction country construction co-operative, country-stroytelniy the cooperative, in which it recognized the right of the individual to build a small house on land leased from the government.
The 1980s saw the peak of the dacha boom, nearly all affluent families - over a third of families in urban areas - the presence of a private cottage. Dacha houses built since the late 1980s much more than the old one, since the liberalization of the legal size limit, and new suburban tracts of the fields have become relatively large houses on small plots. Areas between lines of dacha plots, as a rule, improve or improved with crushed stone, and narrow, often about 6 m 20 feet between fences) enough that two cars can hardly pass each other by.
Dachas began to be found in other countries of Eastern Europe, especially in East Germany, where the concept was unknown before 1945, but still quite relevant, even after the unification of Germany, and in Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.
1.3. History. Post-Soviet. (Постсоветский)
In connection with rapid growth of urbanization in Russia at the present time, many village houses are used as cottages. Now a Russian village gardeners as temporary residents. Some villages have been fully transformed into dacha settlements, while some older dacha settlements often look like more permanent lodgings. The benefits of purchasing a dacha in the village, as a rule, lower costs, greater land area, and long distances between houses. Disadvantages may include lower-quality public services, security, and, as a rule, a greater distance to travel.
Means of transportation for people to get to their dachas, besides cars, are "water buses", buses and trains, colloquially called "elektrichka" train. Due to the large number of people who go to the garden at the weekend, especially in summer, traffic typically builds up around large cities, and elektrichka and buses are filled to capacity.
Dachas have also started appearing in regions of North America, known for its high concentration of immigrants from Russia and Ukraine. Russians and Ukrainians from new York city, long island and new Jersey are already moving to the Russian style dacha homes in the forests of the state of new York in order to recreate the dacha experiences they had during the Soviet era.
2. Cottage gardens. (Коттедж сады)
Plots, as a rule, not more than 600 m2 6.500 sq. m in area, in some cases, 1.200 or 1.500 m 2 or 13.000 16.000 square feet, but nearly never exceeding 0.96 ha of 2.4 acres. So they are too small to grow any large amounts of fruits and vegetables, so sometimes they are also grown on dedicated plots of land nearby. In Soviet times and sometimes now, such dedicated plots of ground were often made of the unused areas of agricultural land belonging to collective farms. Many small dacha plots, especially those that were recently purchased were not used for large fruits and vegetables. Instead, they are used for gardening and planting exotic plants.
Because of custom and perceived high cost of good equipment, even relatively large plots of land are often cultivated manually using equipment such as a shovel or garden fork. Fall, growing potatoes and other crops are gathered and transported to town where they are stored in cellars, dugouts, usually located on unused plots of land, or in personal automobile garages.
Many Russians prefer to grow vegetables themselves because of the widespread belief in the excessive use of chemicals in vegetables from supermarkets and grocery stores, as well as the higher cost of vegetables in shops and markets, especially among the older part of the population. Also, growing your own food is a long-lived Russian tradition practiced even by many affluent Russians. This is seen as a way to have a relationship with the land, to be self-sufficient, and for many to find some escape from a capitalist economy.
While the majority of urban Russians grow vegetables in their dacha gardens, the perception in some parts of society that urban Russians are becoming increasingly self-sufficient is a myth, and only about 15% of the vegetables grown on urban residents.
The most common dacha fruits in cool temperate regions of Russia, Apple, black currant, red currant, gooseberry, raspberry and strawberry. Popular vegetables and herbs potatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkin, tomatoes, carrots, beets, cabbage, cauliflower, radish, turnip, onion, garlic, dill, parsley, rhubarb and sorrel.
3.1. Luxury villas. Gosdachas
Government rest houses allotted for government officials, scientists, military personnel and other dignitaries called "gosdachas" dachas, dacha abbreviated state of the state - the "state dacha". In modern Russia, the Federal property Agency of Russia continues to own numerous estates throughout the country that are leased, often on non-market conditions, state officials said. The Russian Presidents official country residence in Novo-Ogaryovo and Zavidovo. Gosdachas in Komarovo and Peredelkino, Zhukovka, Barvikha, Usovo and Rublyovka in Moscow, home to many Soviet intellectuals and artists. Russian President Vladimir Putin at his dacha in the Karelian isthmus, within the framework of cooperative society is called a lake, and one in Sochi.
3.2. Luxury villas. Modern luxury villas. (Современные роскошные виллы)
In modern times, the rise of a new class in Russian society new Russian has added a new dimension to the concept of "giving". Some wealthy Russians prefer the term cottage for their country houses.
Construction costs often reaching into the millions US dollars, the dachas of the countrys elite have no resemblance to the small dachas of the Soviet era. Comparable in size and décor to mansions and palaces, they become an elaborate display of social status, wealth and power. Most dachas of the elite are constructed of brick and concrete, unlike the middle-class dachas that are mostly constructed using wood. These new symbols of prosperity are designed by professional architects, usually in eclectic style - this senior spent to treat as a reflection of the Nouveau-riche tastes of their owners-and feature ostentatious items such as marble statues, fountains and exotic plants. Some of the state-of-the-art sports facilities such as indoor pool, several tennis courts and stables for race horses. Several private estates, even small forests and lakes.
Wealthy Russians have also bought many of the tsars summer residences of the aristocracy and Soviet dacha of artists and intellectuals.
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