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Notational analysis - sports science. In professional sports, the notational analysis is the study of patterns of movement, Strategy and tactics in team spor ..



Notational analysis
                                     

Notational analysis

In professional sports, the notational analysis is the study of patterns of movement, Strategy and tactics in team sports. Successful game plans can be identified and used in subsequent matches. The notational analysis has a history in dance and music notation. In the notation of the analysis is such that critical events in a performance can be defined a coherent and reliable way.

In the notational analysis, no changes in the performance of any kind will occur without feedback. The role of feedback is Central to improving productivity, and, therefore, essential for the precision and accuracy of such information. Provide accurate and reliable feedback can only be facilitated if performance and practice is subjected to intensive analysis process.

Augmented feedback is traditionally provided by subjective observations made during the performance of trainers, in the hope that they will be able to pinpoint the critical elements without any comments AIDS. Some studies not only contradict this belief, but suggests that the recall abilities of experienced coaches a little better than novices, and even Supervisory training, coaches recall abilities improved slightly. In addition, research in applied psychology suggests that these recall abilities are also influenced by factors that include the observers motives and beliefs. The coach is not a passive perception of information, and as such his perception of events is selective and constructive, and not just copying the process. This importance of feedback to improve performance and limit coaches recall abilities, mentioned above, entails the need for objective data on which augmented feedback, and the main methods of "objectifying" these data involve the use of video / the notational analysis Hughes and Franks, 1997 p. 11.

The coaches were aware, consciously or unconsciously, these requirements for the accuracy feedback, and were using a simple data collection system for decades. More recently sports scientists have used the notational analysis system to answer fundamental questions about the game and achievements in sports. An early work, over some decades, on analysis of the football was picked up by the then Director of coaching at the Football Association, and this has had a profound influence on patterns of play in British football – the adoption of the long game. As a rule, the first publication in the UK of the research process through the notational analysis of sport was in the mid 1970-ies as a discipline is one of the last to embrace sports science. The publication of several number systems in the game with the racket provided the Fund of ideas used by other analysts. Due to the growth and development of sports science as a scientific discipline, a number of scientists began to use and extend simple ways to refer to forces that have served for decades. This also coincided with the advent of personal computers, which transformed all aspects of data collection in the field of sports science. Currently, power and automated systems of notation are used equally, working intelligence, although the use of computer databases to gather strength recorded after these events makes the analysis much more powerful.

The use of notation has been defined as:

  • Technical assessment. (Техническая оценка)
  • Motion analysis. (Анализ движения)
  • For use for educational purposes with both coaches and players.
  • Tactical evaluation. (Тактическая оценка)
  • Database development and modeling, and.

The majority of studies using notation, or indeed any practical applications working directly with coaches and athletes, will cover more than one of these purposes.

                                     

1.1. The use of notation. Tactical assessment. (Тактическая оценка)

The definition of tactical schemes of the game in the sport was a lucrative source for a number of researchers. Maturation of tactics can be analyzed at different levels of development of a particular sport, typically using cross-sectional design. Different tactics used at each level of development in the sport will inevitably depend upon technical development, physical maturation and other factors. Model of maturation have very important implications for coaching methods and directions at different stages of development in each of the games with the racket. These tactical rules or models based on techniques and tactics to demonstrate how the different applications defined above may overlap.

Sanderson and way, 1977 used symbols to represent seventeen different strokes, as well as incorporating court plans for recording accurate positional information. The system took about 5-8 hours of work and practice before the operator was good enough to record a full match actually during the game. In an average squash match there are about 1000 shots through Analytics the system will gather over 30 pages of data per match. Not only models of rally-ending shots of the nth shot of the meeting considered in detail, but those shots that preceded the end shot, N-1 to a winner or error, and the shots that preceded those, N-2 of the winner or an error. Thus, the rally ending game models were analyzed. Not surprisingly, data processing for just one match can last up to 40 hours of extra work. The main emphasis of this system to collect information about the model of the game, but also a comprehensive set of descriptive data of match. Sanderson felt that was meaningful symbols better than the codes, it is easier for the operator to learn and remember. The main disadvantages of this system, as everything from the hand system, it was time to learn the system and large amounts of data, which in turn took much time to process it.

In the 1980s and 1990s, researchers are trying to use emerging technologies to alleviate the problems inherent in collecting and interpreting large volumes of complex data. Hughes 1987 modified method of Sanderson and so that the hand-recorded data can be processed by computer. In the end, the manual method was modified so that the match can be recorded in the match in the first row directly into the microcomputer. Then this work was extended to study the laws of the game of male squash players at recreational, County and elite levels, thereby creating an empirical model of performance, while the principles of stabilization data was not fully understood at the time. This form of empirical modelling of tactical profiles is fundamental to a large number of published works in the notational analysis. Comparing game plans, successful and unsuccessful teams or players in elite competitions, world Cups, for example, provides definitions of these indicators, the difference between the two groups. This pattern of research was used in a number of sports to highlight the tactical settings that determine success, and it was expanded in the tennis compare game plans that are successful on different surfaces, which major tournaments.

Most of the examples for tactical use notation may appear in other sections of the direct application of the notational analysis, but their initial aims were linked with analysis of tactics. An interesting theme that is emerging from some recent studies is that the tactical model, which are determined by change over time, as players become fitter, stronger, faster, bigger thinks about the changes in Rugby since professionalisation in 1996, and equipment changes – for example, rackets in all sports are lighter and more powerful. Within less than 15 years duration of rallies in squash, for elite players, was reduced from about 20 shots, about 12 shots in a rally. Great Croucher review, 1996, application of strategies using the notational analysis of different sports outlines the problems, advantages and disadvantages associated with this feature.

                                     

1.2. The use of notation. Technical assessment. (Техническая оценка)

To define quantitatively where technique is not allocated or has a very practical application for coaches, in particular, and also for sports scientists to analyze the efficiency at different levels of development of athletes.

The winners and errors are powerful indicators of technical competence in the game with the racket and is often used in scientific research in the notational analysis of net-wall games. It was found that by all standards of squash if winner: error ratio for a particular player in the match was more than one, then that player usually won. This was achieved with English scored 19-inch tin. Although this ratio is a good indicator of the technique, it would be better to use data for both players, and the indicators should be simplified and divided. The end of the rally the distributions of winners and errors in a different position of the cells through the courts, often used to determine technical strengths and weaknesses. Such use of these distributions as indicators is valid as a General distribution of shots across the court balanced. This uniform distribution of shots rarely occurs in any net or wall game. Dispersion of winners and errors should be standardized taking into account the results of shots from those cells. It would be more accurate to present the winner, or the error frequency, the position of cells, as a ratio to the total number of shots from those cells.

Similarly, performance indicators such as human resources are insufficient and must be made with lots of detail, for example shot ratio in football goal. Even these, powerful as they should be treated with caution and perhaps integrated with some measure of shooting options? In Rugby, primes cancers and malls may not give a clear impression of the match, the ratio of Cancers over the initiator of the fights is a more powerful criterion of efficiency. It can also be improved by some measure of how fast the ball was won in critical areas of the field?

Many coaches seek the template of tactical games at the highest level for the training of elite players and / or teams and for those players who strive to achieve a high position. Features databases, aimed at specific individuals or groups, can also be used to prepare In anticipation of potential rivals for games. This simulation of technical achievement has been replicated in many sports and are the basis of training at the highest level in sports science support team.

                                     

2. Motion analysis. (Анализ движения)

Reilly and Thomas 1976 recorded and analysed the intensity and scale of individual activities during match play in football. The combination of power notation and use the audio recorder, they are analyzed in detail in the movements of English first division players. They were able to specify work-rates of the different positions, distances covered in a game and the percentage of time each position in each ambulatory classification. Reilly continually added to this base data to allow it to uniquely identify the specific physiological needs of not only football, but all football codes. This piece of work by Reilly and Thomas has become the standard by which other similar research projects can compare their results and procedures, and it was replicated by many other researchers in a variety of sports.

Advanced tracking system has taken the chore out of data collection movement that was the most time-consuming application of the notational analysis, and advanced computer graphics to make data presentation very easy to understand. Traffic modeling has improved the understanding of the respective sports and gave specific training programmes should be developed to improve movement patterns and fitness of the respective athletes.



                                     

3. Database development and modeling. (Разработка базы данных и моделирование)

Bands and artists often exhibit stereotypical way to play these kind of models, which include positive and negative aspects of the activities. Slot templates will be installed within a certain period of time, but the bigger the database, the more accurate the model. The created model provides the opportunity to compare single performance against it. The modelling of competitive sport is an informative analytic technique because it directs the attention of the author of the most important aspects of information constituting a successful performance. The Modeler looking for a basic signature performance, which is a reliable predictor of future sport behaviour. Stochastic models yet, as far as we know, was used to investigate the Sport on the behavioral level of analysis. However, the modelling procedure is readily applicable to other sports and can lead to useful and interesting results.

Once the notational analysis system used to collect data sets that are large enough to determine norms of behavior, all subsequent results are based on the principles of modeling. This is an implicit assumption in the notational analysis, representing the characteristics of the collective or of the individual that the normative profile had been reached. In essence, this means that all the variables that need to be analyzed and mapped all stabiliziruemost. Most researchers assume that this would have happened if they analyze enough performances. But how many is enough? In the literature there are large differences in the sample sizes.

These problems are very serious direct consequences for the analyst working with coaches and athletes, in both practical and theoretical applications. It is important that analysts present the performance profiles, which they, of course, stable otherwise any statement that the representation is false. The whole process of analysis and feedback of performance has many practical difficulties. Analyst efficiency in the application environment, will experience strict deadlines and considerable time pressure, certain dates of the next tournament, the schedule and the draw. Then you need to provide coaches with accurate information on as many of the likely opponents, or teams, in the amount of time. This can be achieved by the instigation of the library team and / or player analysis files, which can be expanded over time and receive frequent updates. Files player should be updated regularly by adding the tests of the last matches in the database for each player.

Finally, some scientists believe that the use of a number of complex methods such as neural networks, chaos theory, fuzzy logic and catastrophe Theory, for the recognition of structures, or processes, within the framework of sports. Each of these descriptions of the system, although not fully, can help in our understanding of behaviour that shape sporting events. In addition, these descriptions are for sporting events need not be mutually exclusive, and hybrid type a description or model may be appropriate in the future, but the assumption that remains only a hypothesis at the moment.

                                     

4. Educational apps. (Образовательные приложения)

It is considered that the feedback, if at the right time and in the right quantity, plays an important role in the development of new skills and increased productivity. However, recent research has shown that more objective and quantitative feedback is, the more effect it has on performance. However, in order to gauge exactly one feedback effect, full control will be required in order to minimize the influence of other external variables, which, by definition, impossible in a real competitive environment. This experimental design is also made more difficult because working with elite athletes excludes a large number of subjects.

Hughes and Robertson 1997 using the notation system as a Supplement to the spectrum of tactical models that they created for the game of squash. Power system notation used in the Welsh national youth squad, the actual designation being completed by the players, for the players. It is believed that in this way the tactical awareness of players, make notes, enhanced by their administration of these systems. Such training and practical use of the number systems used in some teams sports, soccer, Rugby basketball, cricket, etc. players in the lineups, substitute injured players as a way of enhancing their understanding of the sport, and provides statistics on their team.

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