Introspection illusion - philosophy of mind. The introspection illusion is a cognitive bias in which people wrongly think they have direct insight into the o ..

Introspection illusion

Introspection illusion

The introspection illusion is a cognitive bias in which people wrongly think they have direct insight into the origins of their mental States, while treating others the knowledge as unreliable. In some situations, this illusion leads people not confident but false explanations of their own behavior or inaccurate predictions of their future mental States.

The illusion has been examined in psychological experiments, and suggested as a basis for biases in how people compare themselves with others. These experiments were interpreted as suggesting that instead of offering direct access to the processes underlying mental States, introspection is a process of building and how many people indirectly deduce other mental States from their behavior.

When people mistake unreliable introspection for genuine self-knowledge, the result can be an illusion of superiority over other people, for example when each person thinks they are less biased and less conformist than the rest of the group. Even when experimental reports will be made to other knowledge objects in as much detail as possible the form, they still have those and other knowledge as unreliable when treating them as reliable. Although the hypothesis introspection illusion informs some psychological research, the existing evidence is arguably inadequate to decide how reliable introspection is in normal circumstances. The correction for the bias may be possible through education about the bias and its unconscious nature.


1. Components. (Компоненты)

The phrase "introspection illusion" was coined by Emily Pronin. Pronin describes the illusion as having four components:

  • They do not give such a strong weight when assessing others.
  • Own knowledge more highly weighted than others. Its not just that people do not have access to each other knowledge: they regard only their own as reliable.
  • People disregard their own behavior when assessing themselves and not others.
  • People give a strong weighting to introspective evidence when assessing themselves.

2. The unreliability of introspection. (Ненадежность самонаблюдения)

Document, 1977 psychologists Richard Nisbett and Timothy D. Wilson challenged the directness and reliability of introspection, thereby becoming one of the most cited papers in the science of consciousness. Nisbett and Wilson reported on experiments in which subjects verbally explained why they have a particular preference, or how they arrived at a particular idea. On the basis of these studies and existing attribution research, they concluded that reports on mental processes are confabulated. They wrote that participants who were "little or no introspective access to higher order cognitive processes". They are distinguished between mental contents such as feelings and thought processes, arguing that while introspection gives us access to contents, processes remain hidden.

Although some other experimental work with Nisbett and Wilson paper, difficulties with testing the hypothesis of introspective access meant that research on the topic as a whole remained at the same level. Tenth anniversary review raised several objections, questioning the idea of "process" they had used and arguing that unambiguous tests of introspective access are hard to achieve.

Updating the theory in 2002, Wilson admitted that the 1977 claims had been too far-reaching. Instead, he relied on the theory that the adaptive unconscious does much of the moment-to-moment work of perception and behavior. When people are asked about their mental processes, they cannot access this unconscious activity. However, instead of acknowledging their lack of insight, they confabulate a plausible explanation, and "seem" to "unaware of their unawareness".

The idea that people can be mistaken about their inner functioning is one applied by eliminative materialists. These philosophers suggest that some concepts, including "belief" or "pain" is not what is usually expected with the development of science.

The faulty guesses that people make to explain their thought processes has been called "causal theory". A causal theory is given after the act is often used merely to justify a persons behavior to reduce cognitive dissonance. That is, people may not notice the true causes of their behavior, even when trying to explain the result is an explanation that mostly just makes themselves feel better. An example might be a person who mistreats others who have a special quality because he is ashamed that he himself has this quality. He cant admit it to himself, instead claiming his prejudice since he came to the conclusion that a particular quality is bad.

A study conducted by philosopher Eric Schwitzgebel and psychologist Russell T. Hurlburt was set up to measure the extent of introspective accuracy by collecting introspective reports from a single person who was given the pseudonym "Melanie". Melanie was given an audible alarm, which sounded at random moments, and when he did she had to note that she currently feels and thinks. After analyzing the reports, the authors had different opinions about the results, the correct interpretation of Melanies claim and her introspective accuracy. Even after a long discussion the two authors disagreed with each other in the closing remarks, Schwitzgebel to be pessimistic and Hurlburt optimistic about the reliability of introspection.


2.1. The unreliability of introspection. Factors in accuracy. (Факторов в точность)

Nisbett and Wilson conjectured about several factors that, in their opinion, affect the accuracy of introspective self-report on knowledge.

  • Nonverbal behavior: while people receive a large amount of information about others via nonverbal cues, the verbal nature of communication and the difficulty of translating nonverbal behavior in verbal form, lead to lower frequency of reporting.
  • Removal time: the greater the distance in time after the occurrence of an event, the less available and more difficult to remember it.
  • The discrepancy between the magnitude of cause and effect: because it seems natural to assume that a certain size cause will lead to the same effect size, relationships between the causes and effects of different magnitudes are not often drawn.
  • Availability: stimuli that are highly salient either due to novelty or very memorable, most likely, it should be recalled and considered for the answer.
  • Non-event: no event, of course, less visible and accessible than the event itself, leading nonevents to have little affect on the reports.
  • Mechanics of judgment: people dont recognize the impact that decision factors, such as the impact of the position on them, which leads to inaccuracies in reporting.
  • Believability: whether the person finds a stimulus to be a sufficiently likely cause for an effect determines the influence it has on their perceptions of the stimulus.
  • Context: focusing on the context of an object distracts from evaluation of that object and may lead to falsely believe that their thoughts about the object is presented in context.


2.2. The unreliability of introspection. Unawareness of errors. (Неосознанность ошибки)

Several hypotheses explaining peoples unawareness of their inaccuracies in introspection were provided by Nisbett and Wilson:

  • Confusion between content and process people are usually unable to access the exact process by which they came to the conclusion, but can recall an intermediate step to the result. However, this step is still content in nature, not the process. The confusion of these discrete forms leads people to believe that they are able to understand their judgment processes. Nisbett and Wilson have been criticized for failing to provide a clear definition of the differences between mental content and mental processes.
  • Motivational reasons: given their ability to understand their reasoning as equivalent to foreign intimidation and threat to ego and a sense of control. Thus, people do not like to entertain the idea, instead, to support the belief that they can accurately introspect.
  • Inadequate feedback: by nature, introspection is difficult to be denied in everyday life, with no tests, and others, usually not the question of who knowledge. Moreover, when causal entities, the theory of reasoning would seem to refute, it is easy for them to produce alternative reasons for why the evidence is actually not disconfirmatory at all.
  • Knowledge of prior idiosyncratic reactions to a stimulus: people, faith that they react in an abnormal manner to a stimulus that would be unpredictable from the point of view of an outside observer, seems to support true introspective ability. However, these perceived covariance may in fact be false, and truly abnormal covariance rare.
  • Attention and intentional knowledge: a person can consciously know that they do not pay attention to certain stimuli or not a certain intent. Again, as to understand that an observer has, it seems to be a valid introspective abilities. However, the authors note that such knowledge actually can mislead the person if it is not as influential as they may think.
  • Differences in causal theories between subcultures: the inherent differences between discrete subcultures suggests that they are a little different causal theories for any one stimulus. Thus, the outsider will not have the same ability to discern the true cause, how would the insider, again making it seem, for self-examination, which they are able to understand the decision process better than the other.

2.3. The unreliability of introspection. Criticism. (Критика)

The claim that confabulation excuses developed to reduce cognitive dissonance is criticized by some evolutionary biologists to assume the evolution of a mechanism to sense dissonanced lack of justification. These evolutionary biologists argue that if a causal theory had higher predictive accuracy than the prejudice that would place even without causal theories, there would be evolutionary selection encounter any discomfort from the lack of a causal theory. Claim that studies in the United States, which appear to show a link between homophobia and homosexuality can explain such a link, the actual criticized by many scientists. So much homophobia in the United States due to religious propaganda and therefore are not linked to personal sexual preferences, they argue that the appearance of links for voluntarily-biased erotica studies in which religious homophobes are afraid of gods judgment, but not recorded as "homosexual" earthly psychologists while most non-homophobes in the fallacy of the false dichotomy to suggest that the notion that men can be sexually fluid as "homophobes" and "not ethical."


3. Choice blindness. (Выбор слепота)

Inspired by the Nisbett and Wilson paper, Petter Johansson and his colleagues have explored the topics of understanding your own preferences using a new technique. Themes saw two photographs of people and asked which they found more attractive. They gave a closer look at your "selected" photos and were asked to verbally explain their choice. However, in some studies, the experimenter had slipped them the other photograph rather than the one whom they have chosen, using sleight of hand. The majority of the subjects did not notice that in the picture they looked the match was selected for a few seconds before. Many subjects confabulated explanations of their preferences. For example, a person might say: "I chose this one because I prefer blondes" when he actually pointed at a dark-haired woman, but was handed a blonde. They must have been confabulated because they explain a choice that was not. Most of the items that were taken in the deception contrasts with the 84% who, in post-test interviews, said that hypothetically they would have detected if it was done in front of them. The researchers coined the phrase "choice blindness" for this failure to detect the discrepancy.

In a subsequent experiment involved shoppers in a supermarket tasting two different kinds of jam, then verbally explaining their choice while taking further spoonfuls from the "chosen" pot. However, the pots were rigged so that when explaining their choice, the subjects tasting jam they had rejected. A similar experiment was conducted with tea. Another variation involved subjects choosing between two objects displayed on PowerPoint slides, then explaining their choice when the description of what they chose has been altered.

Research by Paul Eastwick and the relationship Eli Finkel, a psychologist at northwestern University also undermined the idea that subjects have direct introspective awareness of what attracts them to other people. These researchers examined male and female subjects report that they found attractive. Men generally reported that physical attraction is crucial while women identified the potential as the most important. Those subjective reports did not predict their actual choices in a speed Dating context, or their Dating behavior in a single month of observation.

In accordance with choice blindness, Henkel and Mather found that people are easily convinced by false reminders that they chose different options than they actually chose and that they show greater choice in support of bias in memory for whichever option they believe they chose.


3.1. Choice blindness. Criticism. (Критика)

It is unclear, however, how these findings are applicable to real life experience, when we have more time to reflect or use actual faces in contrast to grayscale photos. As Professor Kaszniak said: "although a priori theories are an important component of peoples causal explanation that he is not the only action, as supposed to Nisbett & Wilson. The actors also have privileged access to information that includes some degree of introspective access to the relevant causal stimuli and thought processes, as well as greater access than observers on the stimulus-response covariation information about their own behavior." Other critics note that people who volunteer in psychology laboratory studies are not representative for the General population and behave in a way that does not reflect how they behave in real life. Examples include people of many different rooms-open political ideologies, despite their hostility to each other, having common beliefs that it is "ethical" to give the appearance of people justifying beliefs and "unethical" to recognize that people are blinkered in the absence of threats that inhibit critical thinking, making them a false excuse.


4. To change the attitude. (Чтобы изменить отношение)

Studies, ask participants to introspect upon their reasoning, tend to see a subsequent decrease in correspondence between attitude and behavior of participants. For example, in the study of Wilson et al. participants rated their interest in puzzles that they had been given. To customers, one group was instructed to contemplate and write down your reasons for likes or dislikes puzzles, while the control group was given no such task. The amount of time that participants held games with each puzzle, and then was recorded. The correlation between ratings and time spent playing each puzzle was much smaller for self-examination group compared to control group.

A follow-up study was conducted to show the generalization of these results to more realistic circumstances. In this study, the participants were involved in a steady romantic relationship. All were asked to evaluate how well adjusted their relationship. One group was asked to list all the causes of their feelings to their partner, while the control group did not. Six months later, the experimenters followed up with participants to check if they were still in the same relationship. Those who asked to introspect showed much less attitude-behavior sequence based on the correlations between early ratings of the relationship and whether they were still Dating their partners. This shows that self-examination is not predictive, but it can also mean that introspection has changed the evolution of the relationship.

The authors suggest that these effects were due to participants changing their views when faced with the need for justification, without changing their respective behaviors. The authors presumed that this attitude shift is the result of a combination of things: the desire to avoid feeling stupid, just not knowing why feels a certain way, the tendency of justification based on cognitive reasons, in spite of the influence of emotion, ignorance of mental preconceptions, for example, halo effects, and persuasion that reason to come up with, should be representative of their attitude. In fact, people are trying to put a "good story" to explain their reasoning, which often leads to convincing themselves that they actually hold a different faith. In studies in which participants chose the product to keep them in subsequent reports of satisfaction with the item decreased, suggesting that their relationship was temporary, returning to its original position over time.


4.1. To change the attitude. Introspection, focusing on the feelings. (Самонаблюдение, ориентируясь на чувства)

Unlike introspection, focusing on reasoning that gives one to focus on their feelings and actually been shown to increase attitude-behavior correlations. This finding suggests that after reviewing some of the feelings maladaptive processes.


4.2. To change the attitude. Criticism. (Критика)

The theory that there are mental processes that act as an excuse for not doing the behavior more adaptive criticized by some biologists, who argue that the cost of nutrients on brain function selects from any mechanism of the brain that does the behavior is more adapted to the environment. They argue that the cost of key nutrients is even more difficult than it cost in calories, especially in social groups a lot of people in need of such scarce nutrients, which imposes significant difficulties on feeding groups and reduces their potential size. These biologists say that the evolution argument was due to the effectiveness of the arguments about the change in risk perception, relationships and life and death decisions in a more adaptive state as a "luxury feature" that has not improved life, on the death of survival will lose an evolutionary "tug of war" to choose from for food frugality. Although there have been claims maladaptive brain function selection sexual selection, these biologists criticize any application to the introspection illusion is a causal theory, because sexually selected traits are the most disabling as a fitness signal during or after puberty, but the human brain requires the most amount of nutrients until the onset of puberty strengthen the neural connections in which the adult brain is capable of faster and more nutrient-efficient shooting.


5. A priori causal theories. (Априори причинно-следственной теории)

In his classic paper, Nisbett and Wilson proposed that introspective confabulations result from a priori theories which they put forward four possible options for the origin:

  • Explicit cultural rules, such as stops at red traffic light.
  • Similar connotations between stimulus and response.
  • Implicit cultural theories, with a specific scheme is probably the stimulus-response, for example, an athlete only supports the brand, because he is paid to do so.
  • Individual observations and experiments, which lead to the form of the theory covariance.

The authors note that the use of these theories does not necessarily lead to inaccurate assumptions, however, that this often happens because the theory has not been applied.


6. Explaining prejudice. (Объясняя ущерба)

Pronin argues that over-reliance on intentions is a factor in a number of different biases. For example, focusing on their current good intentions, people can overestimate their likelihood of behaving virtuously.


6.1. Explaining prejudice. In prejudice. (В предрассудки)

The bias blind spot is an established phenomenon that people assess themselves as less susceptible to bias than their peers. Emily Pronin and Matthew Kugler argue that this phenomenon is due to the introspection illusion. In their experiments, participants had to make judgments about themselves and other topics. They displayed standard biases, for example rating themselves above the others on desirable qualities, demonstrating illusory superiority. The experimenters explained cognitive bias, and asked the subjects, how could this affect their judgement. The subjects evaluated themselves as less susceptible to bias than others in the experiment, confirming the bias blind spot. When they had to explain their judgments, they used different strategies to evaluate their own and others prejudices.

Pronin and interpretation Kuglers is that when people decide whether someone is biased, they use overt behavior. On the other hand, when assessing whether or not they themselves are biased, people look inward, searching their own thoughts and feelings for biased motives. Since biases operate unconsciously, these knowledge is not informative, but people wrongly treat them as reliable indication that they themselves, unlike other people, are not immune from bias.

Pronin and Kugler tried to give their subjects access to others knowledge. For this, they made audio recordings of subjects who had been told to say whatever came into their heads as they decided whether their answer to a previous question may have been affected by bias. Although subjects persuaded themselves they were unlikely to be biased, their introspective reports did not affect the observers assessment.

When asked what hed like to be biased, subjects were more likely to define bias in terms of analyzed thoughts and motives when he applies to himself, and from the point of view of explicit behavior towards other people. When the subjects clearly said not to rely on introspection, their assessments of their own bias became more realistic.

Furthermore, Nisbett and Wilson found that asking participants whether biases such as the effect of the provisions in the study of the stockings influenced their decisions resulted in a negative reaction, in contradiction with the data.


6.2. Explaining prejudice. In the perception of conformity. (В восприятии соответствия)

Another series of studies Pronin and colleagues examined perceptions of conformity. Subjects were informed that immune to social conformity than their peers. In fact, they saw themselves as "alone in the crowd of sheep." The illusion of introspection appeared to contribute to this effect. When deciding whether others respond to social influence, subjects mainly looked at their behavior, for example, explaining to other students political views in relation to the following groups. When evaluating their compliance subjects to treat their own knowledge as reliable. In their own minds, they found no motive to conform, and so decided that they were not provided.


6.3. Explaining prejudice. In the perception of control and free will. (В восприятии контроля и свободной воли)

Psychologist Daniel Wegner has argued that an introspection illusion contributes to belief in paranormal phenomena such as psychokinesis. He observes that in everyday experience, intention, for example, wanting to turn on the lights accompanied by action, example, clicking the light switch in a reliable way, but the processes connecting the two are not available to consciousness. Therefore, although subjects may feel that they directly introspect their own free will, the experience of control is actually inferred from relations between thought and action. This theory, called "apparent mental causation", acknowledges the influence of David Humes view of the mind. This process for detecting when the person responsible for the action is not absolutely reliable, and when using it can not be the illusion of control. This can occur when an external event follows, and follows, a thought in someones mind without the actual causal link.

As evidence, Wegner cites a series of experiments on magical thinking in which subjects were forced to think they had influenced external events. In one experiment, subjects watched a basketball player taking a series of free throws. When they were instructed to imagine him making his shots, they felt that they had contributed to his success.

If the introspection illusion contributes to the subjective feeling of free will, then it follows that people will more readily attribute free will to ourselves, not others. This prediction was confirmed by three of Pronin and experiments Kuglers. When College students were asked about personal decisions in their own and their neighbors lives, they regarded their own choices as less predictable. The staff in the restaurant described their colleagues lives more strongly, have less opportunity in the future than their own lives. In assessing the impact of various factors on behavior, students gave desires and intentions the strongest weight for their own behavior, but character as the most intelligent development of other people.

However, the criticism Wegners requirements on the significance of introspection illusion for the notion of "free will" was published.


6.4. Explaining prejudice. Criticism. (Критика)

Research shows that volunteers can assess their response time, but actually knowing their "mental processes", but only with significant demands made on their attention and cognitive resources, i.e., they are distracted in the evaluation. This assessment is likely more than post-hoc interpretation and may contain confidential information. Mindfulness training can also increase introspective accuracy in some cases. Nisbett and Wilsons findings have been criticized by psychologists Ericsson and Simon, among others.


7. Correction. (Коррекция)

A study that investigated the effect of educating people about unconscious bias on their subsequent self-assessment of susceptibility to bias showed that those who were educated did not exhibit the bias blind spot, in contrast to the control group. This finding gives hope that information about unconscious biases such as the introspection illusion can help people to avoid biased judgments, or at least they knew that they are biased. The results of other studies for the correction of the tendency to mixed results. In a later review of the illusion of introspection, Pronin suggests that the difference lies in the fact that studies that simply provide a warning of the unconscious biases will not see the correction effect, while those that inform about bias and emphasize its unconscious nature do corrections yield. Therefore, knowing that prejudice can operate during conscious seems to be the determining factor in leading people to the correct one for him.

Timothy Wilson has tried to find a way out of "the introspection illusion", said in his book strangers to ourselves. He suggests that observation of our own behavior more than our thoughts can be one of the keys to better introspective knowledge.


7.1. Correction. Criticism. (Критика)

Some 21st-century critical rationalists claim that claim to fix for introspection illusions or other cognitive distortions create a threat to immunizing themselves to criticism, claiming that criticism of psychological theories, which argue that cognitive biases such "justification" for the cognitive distortion, making it not falsifiable, calling critics, as well as potentially totalitarian. These modern critical rationalists argue that to defend the theory, arguing that it overcomes the bias and claiming that the critics are biased, can protect any pseudoscience from criticism, and that the assertion that "criticism is the defense Used" inherently can not be conclusive, and that for "most people" bias if it existed would be shared by the majority of psychologists, thus, to make the psychological requirements of prejudice accusing way of objective criticism of bias and prejudice marketing as overcoming bias.

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Making Sense of Self Deception: Distinguishing Self Deception from.

The theory suggests that a temporal illusion is created because of the Phenomenal consciousness Introspection Higher order theory Robot. Introspection Illusion by Bunmi Agusto Issuu. Introspection Illusion Subjective validation Self serving bias Egocentric bias Overconfidence effect Pessimism bias Wishful thinking Selective perception. Attitude change. Emily Pronin 2009, for instance, in her consideration of the introspection illusion, draws an important connection between the assumption of.

Introspective Illusion Marmalade Benjamin David Steele.

The introspection illusion is a cognitive bias in which people wrongly think they have direct insight into the origins of their mental states, while treating others. 10 Things You Dont Know About Yourself – Association for. Introspection Illusion is based on a cognitive bias of the same name which describes how people perceive their own actions as rational because they can. The Psychology of Introspection Why You Feel What You Feel. The Introspection Illusion. Emily Pronin. – Professor of Psychology at Princeton University. Her research examines. natural asymmetries in the way we. Overcoming the illusion of will and self‐fabrication: Going beyond. Продолжительность: 1:58.

The Enchanted Glass Michael Shermer.

Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our. Folders related to Introspection illusion Revolvy. Our participants displayed an introspection illusion, placing more weight on introspective evidence of conformity relative to behavioral. Introspection Illusion by Benazir Shaikh on Prezi. Woman looking at a laptop screen with the words introspection illusion Buy this stock illustration and explore similar illustrations at Adobe Stock. PowerPoint Presentation 2l7qmi2biqbs1cfqz042l511 na. When people attempt introspection, they fail to find traces of bias i.e., introspection illusion. Interestingly, children do not seem to. Critical Thinking: Introspection Illusion and Overthinking. INTROSPECTION ILLUSION AND THE METHODOLOGICAL DENIAL OF THE FIRST. PERSON PERSPECTIVE as a psychologist, i wonder why how the. Thinking Too Much Impairs Decision Making Protocol JoVE. Personally, Im not convinced we can. As Ive written about before, I used to hold some very strong idealogical views. It is very hard to articulate. 9781157432999: Illusions: Illusion, Tactile illusion, Illusory. Tag: introspection illusion. Gullwings Dragon Quest & Final Fantasy in Itadaki Street Special. The ​Emo Japanese Game: Final Fantasy.

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Read More: introspection illusion via Scientific American: Mind & Brain. Freuds psychoanalysis, contemporary cognitive social psychology. Emily Pronin and Matthew B. Kugler 2006 Valuing thoughts, ignoring behavior: The introspection illusion as a source of the bias blind spot Journal of. Introspection Illusion – You Are Not So Smart. This relates to the theory of introspective illusion see also change D. Wilson challenged the directness and reliability of introspection,. Nine Things You Dont Know about Yourself. Introspection is closely related to human self reflection and is. This phenomenon has been termed the introspection illusion and has been.

Listen to The Science of Everything Podcast Episode 7.

People see themselves as less susceptible to bias than others. We show that a source of this bias blind spot involves the value that people. The problem of self knowledge askblog Arnold Kling. Is a cognitive bias in which people wrongly think they have direct insight into the origins of their mental states, while treating others introspections as unreliable. The Introspection Illusion Scientific American. A shorter, more modern version of that might be the introspection illusion, a term coined by Princeton psychologist Emily Pronin to describe. Introspection illusion Psychology Fandom. A look into the fascinating psychological phenomenon of the introspection illusion. We explore the research behind this phenomenon, and the many implications. Think Deeply: It May Do Some Good Old Anima. Swimmers Body Illusion. Clustering Illusion. Social Proof. Sunk Cost Fallacy. Reciprocity Forer Effect. Volunteers Folly. Affect Heuristic. Introspection Illusion​.

Introspection Notes Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

How can one be introspective and know ones own mind, when possibly 95%. The introspection illusion is a cognitive bias in which people wrongly think they. Assessments of Bias 1 The Bias Blind Spot and its Implications Lee. Focusing illusion. Nothing in life is as important as we think it Introspection is nothing but a job interview with yourself highly unreliable. Introspection illusion Theology Gaming theo. To evaluate the effects of the type of bias reference self vs. other and the presence of the introspection illusion article vs. no article,. Feature:Introspection Illusion by brockspringstead by Jakeukalane. Overcome the introspection illusion. The first principle is that you must not fool yourself and you are the easiest person to fool. Richard Feynman. To See Ourselves as Others See Us positivepsycho. Valuing thoughts, ignoring behavior: The introspection illusion as a source of the bias blind. Type: Article Author s Emily Pronin, Matthew B. Kugler Date.

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