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Hephaestion - deified people. Hephaistion, son of Amyntor, was an ancient Macedonian nobleman and a General in the army of Alexander the great. He was the mo ..



Hephaestion
                                     

Hephaestion

Hephaistion, son of Amyntor, was an ancient Macedonian nobleman and a General in the army of Alexander the great. He was "the most expensive of all the friends of kings, he was brought up with Alexander and told all their secrets." This relationship lasted throughout their lives, and compared, by others as well as myself that of Achilles and Patroclus.

His military career was noted. A member of Alexander the Greats personal bodyguard, he went on to command the companion cavalry, and was entrusted with many other tasks during Alexandras ten-year campaign in Asia, including diplomatic missions, the bridging of major rivers, sieges, and the Foundation of new settlements. In addition, as a soldier, engineer and diplomat, he corresponded with the philosophers Aristotle and Xenocrates and actively supported Alexander in his attempts to integrate Greeks and Persians. Alexander formally made him his Deputy when he appointed him chiliarch of the Empire. Alexander also made him part of the Royal family when he gave him as his bride Drypetis, sister to his second wife Stateira, both daughters of Darius III of Persia. When he died suddenly at Ecbatana about thirty-two years, Alexander was shocked. He appealed to the Oracle at Siwa to grant hephaestion divine status and, thus, hephaestion was honoured as a Divine hero. The Hephaistion was cremated, and the ashes taken to Babylon. At the time of his death only eight months later, Alexander was still planning lasting monuments Hephaestions memory.

                                     

1. Youth and education. (Молодежь и образование)

Hephaestions exact age is not known. No concise biography has ever been written about him, probably due to the fact that he died before Alexander and none of those among the companions of Alexander, who survived, he would need to promote someone other than yourself. Many scientists refer to Hephaestions with age, being similar to Alexanders so it is fair to assume that he was born about 356 BC. He said to become a page in 343 BC, a role common to adolescent boys of the aristocratic class in Macedon. As a member of the court, he may have met Alexander at this time.

The only surviving anecdote from Hephaestions youth-the merit of the Alexander romance. For this tale: "One day when Alexander was 15 years old. sailing with hephaestion, his friend, he easily reached Pisa. and he went for a stroll with hephaestion." What is the exact age Alexandra is given provides another clue to Hephaestions upbringing because at fifteen Alexander and his companions were at Mieza learned from Aristotle. Hephaestion has never been named among those who attended the lectures at Mieza, but his close friendship with Alexander at that age suggests that he was listed among them. More revealing is Hephaestions name in the catalogue of Aristotles correspondences. The letters themselves no longer exist, but they found their way into an official catalogue, their content must have some value. This means that hephaestion received a good education and shows that Aristotle was impressed enough by his pupil to send letters throughout Aleksandrovs expanding Empire to converse with him.

A few years after the lectures at Mieza, the presence Hephaestions was conspicuously absent when several of Alexanders close friends were exiled as a result, the Pixodarus affair. Among those exiled by Philip II after Alexanders failed attempt to offer himself as groom to the Carian Princess were Ptolemy, Nearchus, as harpalus, Erigyius and Laomedon. The reason for absence Hephaestions from this list may be the fact that all of the exiled men were older friends of Alexander, Erigyius himself roughly 24 years older than the Prince. Hephaestion was a contemporary of Alexander and it is likely that its impact may be less dangerous than their more Mature comrades. Whatever opinion Hephaestions was at the whole thing, like many of Aleksandrovs other childhood companions, he was not exiled in its aftermath.

While its true that very little detail Hephaestions childhood and education you can find something that still reflects what is known about his later life. His friendship with Alexander was long-lasting, as well as his work at the court in Pella, he even shares the same education as the future great king of Greece and Asia. With such a promising start, age and experience would have helped mould hephaestion Amyntoros to the man who would later become the second most powerful man in Alexanders Empire, second only to the king himself.

                                     

2. Career. (Карьера)

Joint care Alexander, Hephaistion would have learned to fight and ride well from an early age. His first taste of military action was probably the campaign against the Thracians while Alexander was Regent, after the campaign of Philip the Danube RIS 342 BC and the battle of Chaeronea 338 BC, when he was a teenager. His name is not mentioned in lists of high-ranking officers in the beginning of the battle, Alexanders Danube campaign of 335 BC, or the invasion of Persia. No last name Alexandrov and other close friends and contemporaries listed, suggesting that their promotions, when they achieved them, were earned by merit.

Career Hephaestions never been exclusively military. From the start, he also participated in special missions, sometimes diplomatic, sometimes technical. The first mention of his career in the sources is the diplomatic mission of the utmost importance. After the battle of Issus 333 BC, when Alexander goes South down the Phoenician coast and received the capitulation of Sidon, hephaestion was "authorized to appoint to the throne of Sidon he considered most worthy of this high office". Hephaestion took local advice, and chose a man distantly related to the Royal family, but whose honesty had reduced him to working as a gardener. Man, Abdalonymus, was a successful Royal career, fully justifying the choice Hephaestions.

After the siege of tyre 332 BC, Alexander entrusted his fleet to hephaestion, who had orders to circumvent the coast and head for Gaza, their next objective, while Alexander himself led the troops by land. Task Hephaestions was not easy for this was not the Athenian fleet with which Alexander had already begun, and earlier disbanded, but a motley collection of semi-reluctant allies of many nationalities, who would need holding together with patience and strength. In addition, on arrival in Gaza cargo siege machines had to be unloaded, transported across difficult terrain and collected.

Plutarch, in writing about alexanders correspondence, shows the case where Hephaistion was on a business trip and Alexander wrote to him. Subject suggests that this occurred while they were in Egypt. What business hephaestion was attending to we do not know, but Andrew chugg suggested that it was associated with his command of the fleet or Athenian diplomacy. He quotes sources which suggest that hephaestion was approached by Aristion of Athens to effect a reconciliation between Alexander and Demosthenes, and of course, Athens inaction during the revolt of the Spartan king Agis would seem to support this idea. As Chugg says, "if he did persuade Alexander to reach an accommodation with Demosthenes at this critical moment, as seems likely, from the circumstances, then he was significantly responsible for the situation in Macedonia in Greece, preventing the revolt of Agis spreading to Athens and her allies."

It is likely, though not certain, that it was Hephaistion, who led the advance of the army of Egypt to bridge the Euphrates river. Darius of Persia sent Mazaeus to hold the opposite shore, and the bridge is working. This Mazaeus was the commander who threw what looks like certain victory on the Persian right at the battle Gaugamela 331 BC and later became Governor of Alexander from Babylon. Robin lane Fox has suggested that the conversation with Hephaistion may have won for Mazaeus: "we Can assume that the battle of Gaugamela was partly won on the banks of the Euphrates, and that Mazaeus the recovery was less a mark of magnanimity than the agreed reward."

It Gaugamela, in which is mentioned the first of Hephaestions rank. Its called "the commander of the somatophylakes bodyguards". This is not the Royal squadron, whose duties also included guarding the king in battle and which at that time commanded by cleitus - a man of the older generation, but a small group of comrades specifically designed to fight on the side of the king. Hephaistion, of course, was in the thick of things with Alexander Arrian tells us he was wounded and Curtius specifically mentions that he was with a spear wound in the arm.

After Gaugamela is the first sign that he intended reconciliation with the Persians, and that hephaestion supported him in this unpopular policy. One evening in Babylon, Alexander noticed a high-born woman obliged to dance as part of entertainment. Curtius says: "the next day, he Alexander instructed hephaestion to have all the prisoners brought to the Royal chambers, and there he checked the pedigree of each of them." Alexander realized that people from noble families were accepted for treatment a little dignity and wanted to do something. He chose to Hephaistion to help him shows that he can rely on Hephaestions tact and sympathy. But Alexander could also rely on hephaestion for firmness and determination. When his policies led to a conspiracy against his life, the possible involvement of high-ranking officers, Philotas, caused a lot of anxiety. It was hephaestion, kraterus, and together with characterized by a violent development, who insisted on, and actually accomplished, the usual torture.

After the execution of Philotas 330 BC, hephaestion was appointed joint commander, with Clete companion cavalry, Philotas former position. This dual appointment was a way of satisfying various shades of opinion now hardening throughout the army: one, like hephaestion, broadly, to support Alexanders policy of integration, and others that Philips in older veterans, in particular, whose implacable resentment of Persian side was well represented by cleitus. The cavalry prospered under this command, showing itself equal to learning a new tactic is necessary against Scythian nomads and punitive measures such as those deployed in the spring of 328 BC went To the army from Balkh in five columns to spread through the valleys between the Oxus and Tanais rivers to subdue Sogdiana. Hephaistion commanded one of the columns and, after moving to Marakanda, he went again to the establishment of settlements in the region.

In the spring of 327 BC, the army headed to India and Alexander divided his forces. He led his section to the North in the SWAT valley, while hephaestion and Perdiccas took a large contingent through the Khyber pass. Hephaestions orders were "to take on either force or agreement all places on their March, and on reaching the Indus to make suitable preparations for crossing". They were in unknown territory, whose political and geographical landscapes were unfamiliar, and hephaestion would have had to make decisions on the spot and act accordingly. He reached the Indus with the land behind him conquered, including the successful siege Peuceolatis, which has occupied thirty days, and began to organize the construction of boats for the crossing.

Alexander often had to divide their forces and command higher and senior officers on different occasions. For example, a few weeks before this mission Hephaestions, the crater was sent with a large force to conquer the last two remaining Bactrian rebels. It seems that hephaestion was chosen when the objectives were far from clear, and Alexander needed a commander on whom he could rely to do what he would have done it myself without instructions.

Hephaestion took part in a cavalry charge at the battle of Hydaspes in 326 BC by the river. Then, when the army made the return journey he was again entrusted with half the army, including the elite troops and two hundred elephants, as they travelled South-West along the banks of the Hydaspes. Some of the army, including Alexander himself, travelled in boats, which were provided by sponsors leading courtiers. Arrian lists hephaestion first among these "honorary trierarchs", indicating his leading position at this time. When entering hostile territory, Alexander split his forces into three parts. Section Hephaestions were "five days for the purpose of intercepting and capturing any native troops which. can be quickly to move forward." Again, hephaestion was called upon when initiative was required. After Alexander had taken a detour to subdue a hostile tribe, in which he was seriously injured, hephaestion took command of the greater part of the army as they travelled down the Indus to the sea. On the coast he organized the construction of the fortress and harbour for the fleet at Pattala.

Hephaestion was in the team at Pattala while Alexander advanced. When he returned Alexander in Rhambacia he founded the city. Hephaestion crossed the Gedrosian desert with Alexander, sharing the torments that journey and, when the army was safely back in Susa, he was decorated For bravery. He had to take part in further fighting, he had only months to live. But after he finished his military career Alexander of de facto second in command, he also was second in the political sphere. Alexander made that the officer, calling it the thousand. Photius mentions Perdiccas was appointed "commander of the chiliarchy which Hephaistion was originally".

                                     

3. Relationship. (Отношения)

Little is known about Hephaestions personal relationships for his close friendship with Alexander. Alexander was a sociable, charismatic man who had many friends, but his family and closest friend and confidant was hephaestion. Their friendship, formed in childhood. He survived adolescence, through Alexander, as king, through the hardships of campaigning and the flatteries of court life and their marriages. In addition to the letter, attributed to Diogenes of Sinope, strongly hinting at Alexander yielding Hephaestions hips, the ancient sources do not usually mention that Hephaistion and Alexander may have been lovers, as some modern researchers adhere to the hypothesis.

Their mentor Aristotle described friendship as "one soul dwelling in two bodies." That they themselves considered their friendship to be of such a kind is shown by the stories the morning after the battle of Issus. Diodorus, Arrian and Curtius to describe the scene, when Alexander and hephaestion went together to visit the captured Persian Royal family. Its senior member, the Queen Sisygambis, Hephaistion fell to his knees to beg for their lives, mistaking him for Alexander, because he was taller, and both young men were dressed in similar clothes. When she realized her mistake, she was greatly embarrassed, but Alexander had forgiven her, saying, "you were not mistaken, mother; this man too is Alexander". Their love for each other was no secret, as evidenced by their own words. Hephaestion, when replying to a letter of Alexanders mother, Olympias, said "You know that Alexander means more to us than anything." Arrian says that Alexander, after Hephaestions death, described him as "the friend I valued as my own life." Paul also took them describes their closeness when he says: "Alexander seems actually to have referred to hephaestion as his alter ego."

Their collaboration is that all thats taken Alexander, Hephaistion was on his side. To determine the nature, in the study of career Hephaestions, Alexander permanent trust, and the growing reliance on hephaestion. Upon arrival in India, after the death of senior generals from the older generation, have been worrying instances among senior officers of his generation of betrayal, lack of sympathy of Alexander the purpose of further integration of Persians into the army, and sheer incompetence. Every time, when Alexander needed to divide his forces, he entrusted half to hephaestion, knowing that he was a man of unquestionable loyalty who understood and sympathized with his aims, and, above all, who did the work.

Hephaestion played a full part in Aleksandrov regular consultations with senior officers, but he was one of those who Alexander also wanted to talk privately, sharing their thoughts, hopes and plans. Curtius States that hephaestion was the co-owner of all his secrets, and Plutarch describes the case when Alexander the controversial change to impose, and implies that hephaestion was the one with whom Alexander had discussed it, and who arranged for changes to be implemented. In accordance with Aetion Alexanders first wedding, hephaestion was his standard bearer, the best man, showing not only their friendship but also their support for the policy of Alexander as the choice of Alexanders Asian bride was not popular. By the time they returned to Persia, hephaestion was officially, by title, Alexander, second-in-command, and he has long been in practice, as well as his brother-in-law. Hammond sums up their public relationship as: "it is not surprising that Alexander was closely attached to hephaestion as Achilles was Patroclus" and "at the time of his death hephaestion held more than one command, that of the companion cavalry, and repeatedly second in command to Alexander in the hierarchy of the Asian court, holding the title of chiliarch, which had been held by Nabarzanes under Darius. Thus Alexander honoured hephaestion, as the closest of his friends and the most distinguished of his field marshals."

It has been suggested that some modern scientists, as well as close friends Alexander and hephaestion were lovers, although hardly any of Alexandrov extant ancient Greek or Roman biographers does not apply to hephaestion as anything but Alexanders friend, in accordance with Hephaestions the epithet "Philalexandros", which he gave to Alexander himself. The ancient sources generally name hephaestion only as a good and loyal friend of Alexander.

However, Arrian describes the occasion when Alexander and hephaestion publicly identified themselves with the Homeric figures of Achilles and Patroclus. In the beginning of the campaign in Asia, Alexander led a contingent of the army to visit Troy, where there were events in his beloved Iliad. He laid a wreath at the tomb of Achilles and hephaestion laid wreaths on the grave of Patroclus and they ran a race, naked, in honor of their fallen heroes. Arrian discreetly draws no conclusions from this, however, according to Thomas R. Martin, in any case not to identify Alexander and hephaestion with Achilles and Patroclus equate them in a homosexual relationship, as Homer, the author of the Iliad never suggested that Achilles and Patroclus were in a sexual relationship. Martin further suggests that this concept was theoretically for an indefinite "later authors", which, however, include such eminent writers as Aeschylus and Plato, who lived before Alexander and time Hephaestions. Thus, according to Robin lane Fox quite different conclusions can be drawn: "it was a remarkable tribute, uniquely paid, and it is also Hephaestions first mention in Alexanders career. Was close, Patroclus and Achilles even to those around them, the comparison would remain to the end of their days and is proof of their life as lovers, time for Alexander, Achilles and Patroclus were agreed to enjoy the relationship that Homer himself is never mentioned." Hephaestion and Alexander grew up in a time in which, according to Thomas R. Martin, homosexual Affairs were considered abnormal by majority Greek standards of their time. But Andrew chugg, Robin lane Fox and others show different views. According to Eva Cantarella, for example, male bisexuality is widely permitted and ruled by law, and generally frowned upon by the public to the extent in which it remained within the prescribed limits. For the Greeks, "homosexuality was not an exclusive choice. To love another person is not a variant of the norm, different, somehow deviant. It was just a part of life experience, it was either sentimental or sexual attraction, which in the course of a lifetime, alternated and was associated sometimes at the same time with the love of a woman". Pattern that same-sex love relationship follow, however, is not the same in each city-state. Some Roman and later writers, taking the Athenian, as their example, have tended to assume that Alexander and hephaestion had a sexual relationship which belonged to his youth, after which they left him behind, or that one of them was older, beloved Erastus, and the other was the beloved eromenos. However, this point remains to conjecture in exceptional cases in view of the insufficient direct evidence that Alexander and hephaestion had a sexual relationship.

The first of these has survived to the present day, with writers of fiction, such as Mary Renault and Oliver stone among its proponents, as well as modern historians such as Paul, too, took, who said, "there were rumors, but the rumors this time, of course, correct - that he and Alexander had once been more than just good friends." Aelian takes the latter view when he uses that expression when describing the visit to Troy: "Alexander laid a wreath on the tomb of Achilles and hephaestion on Patroclus, indicating that he was Alexandras eromenos, as Patroclus was of Achilles."

However, what happened in Athens was not necessarily the case in Macedonia. As Robin lane Fox says, "the descendants of the Dorians were considered and even expected to be openly homosexual, especially among the ruling class, and the Macedonian kings had long insisted on their pure Dorian ancestry". This was no fashionable affectation, it was what was in my heart that it was because the Macedonian Dorian, and had more in common with the Theban Sacred band than with Athens. In light of this, it is not surprising that there are many indications that their lifelong relationship was really sexy. Lucian, who wrote in his book on slips of the tongue, describes the case when Hephaestions conversation one morning implied that he had been in Alexanders tent all night, and Plutarch describes the intimacy between them when he tells how hephaestion was in the habit of reading Alexanders letters with him, and at that time, when he showed that the content of the letter was to be kept secret by touching his ring Hephaestions lips. Diogenes of Sinope, in a letter to Alexander when he was a grown man, accuses Alexander of "rules Hephaestions thighs."

No other circumstances is better shows the nature and duration of their relationship than in Aleksandrov overwhelming grief Hephaestions death. As Andrew chugg says, "its certainly incredible, that the reaction Alexandrov Hephaestions death can mean anything other than the closest imaginable relationship." The many and varied ways, both spontaneous and planned, in which Alexander poured out his grief are described below. In the context of nature, but their relationships, one stands out as great. Arrian says that Alexander "flung himself on the body of his friend and lay there nearly all day in tears, and refused to part with him until he was dragged away by the power of his comrades."

Among Alexanders and other officers, it is possible that Hephaistion was closest to Perdiccas, because it was with Perdiccas that he went on a mission to take Peuceolatis and bridge the Indus. By that time, as Alexanders effective second-in-command, he could doubtless have chosen any officer he cared to name. They accomplished everything they set out to do with great success, which suggests that the two of them worked well together, and that hephaestion irrepressible Perdiccas a congenial companion with. It is noteworthy that two of them cavalry regiment, in particular, was selected by Alexander the dangerous crossing of the river Hydaspes, before the battle with the Indian king, Porus. On this occasion the excellent cooperation will be of great value.

However, outside the close-knit coterie of the high command of the Macedonian, he was not universally admired. It is clear from Arrians review about alexanders grief: "all writers agree that it was great, but personal bias for or against Hephaistion and Alexander himself, painted bills, as he put it."

However, given the factions and jealousy that arise in any court and that Hephaistion was incredibly close to the greatest monarch the Western world had not yet seen, it is remarkable how little enmity he inspired. Arrian mentions a quarrel with Alexanders Secretary, Eumenes, but because of the lack of pages in the text, most of the detail is missing, leaving only the conclusion, that something persuaded hephaestion, though against his will to fight. However, Plutarch, who wrote about Eumenes in his series of parallel lives, mentions that it was about housing and flautist, so perhaps it was an instance of some deeper antagonism escalated into quarrels over trivial. That this antagonism may be, it is not possible to know, but someone close to the kings Secretary might have felt jealousy of Hephaestions even greater closeness.

Only in one instance is hephaestion known that he had a fight with a colleague and that was the crater. In this case, it is easier to see that resentment might have been felt on both sides, the crater was one of those officers who violently disliked Alexanders policy of integration of Greek and Persian, while Hephaistion was cool. Plutarch says: "for this reason a feeling of hostility grew and festered between the two and they often came into open conflict. Once in the expedition to India they actually drew their swords and fought." Alexander, who also appreciated the crater, as the most competent officer, was forced to intervene and harsh words for both. This is a measure of how high feelings are on this controversial issue, as it happened, and also show how closely hephaestion identified Alexandrov wishes their. Hephaestion gave perhaps the ultimate proof of this in the summer of 324 BC, when he took as his wife, Drypetis, daughter of Darius and sister of Alexandras own second wife Stateira. From his short family life nothing is known, except that at the time of Alexanders own death, eight months after Hephaestions, Drypetis was still mourning her husband, to whom she had been married only four months.

Alexander married the daughter of Darius made good political sense, firmly allying himself with the ruling class of the Persian, but hephaestion to marry her sister testifies to the high esteem in which Alexander held him, bringing him into the Royal family itself. They became brothers-in-law, and there was more than that. Alexander, Arrian says: "I Want to be uncle Hephaestions children." Thus, it is possible to imagine Alexander and hephaestion hoping that their offspring might unite their lines, and that ultimately, the crown of Macedonia and Persia wore one who was a descendant of both.



                                     

4. Death and funeral. (Смерть и похороны)

In the spring of 324 BC hephaestion left Susa, where he was married, and accompanied Alexander and the rest of the army as they travelled towards Ecbatana. They arrived in the fall, and it was there, during games and festivals, that hephaestion fell ill with a fever. Arrian says that after the fever had run for seven days, Alexander had to be summoned from the games to hephaestion, who was seriously ill. He arrived on time, by the time he got there, hephaestion was dead. Plutarch says that as a young man and a soldier, hephaestion had ignored medical advice and as soon as his doctor, Glaucias, had gone to the theatre, he ate a hearty Breakfast consisting of a boiled fowl and wine cooler, and then got sick and died.

Piecing together the accounts, it seems as if the fever has exhausted itself Hephaestions for seven days, after which he was sufficiently recovered for his doctor, and Alexander himself, to feel it was safe to leave him, and hephaestion to feel hungry. His meal, however, seems to have caused a relapse that led to his quick death. Exactly why it had to happen, it is not known. As Mary Renault says, "this sudden crisis in a young, convalescent man is hard to explain." The explanation that fits most of the facts that the fever was typhoid, and that solid food perforated the ulcerated intestine that the typhoid would have caused. This would lead to internal bleeding, although this would be unusual in this case, death to follow quite as quickly as it appears to be finished. For this reason, it is impossible to completely exclude other possible explanations, one of them is poison.

Hephaestions after his death his body was cremated and the ashes taken to Babylon. The General Eumenes suggested that divine honors be given to hephaestion, this was later done.

Hephaestions death is discussed in more detail in the ancient sources than any of the events of his life, because of his profound influence on Alexander. Plutarch says that "Alexanders grief was uncontrollable," and adds that he ordered many signs of mourning, in particular, that the manes and tails of all horses should be shorn, the demolition of the walls of the neighboring cities and the banning of flutes and every other kind of music. Arrian relates an account that "he threw himself on the body of his friend and lay there nearly all day in tears, and refused to part with him until he was dragged away by force by his companions", another said "he was on the corpse all day and all night, too", and another which told how he had the doctor, Glaucias, executed for lack of medical care. Arrian mentions Alexander ordering the Shrine of Asclepios in Ecbatana to be razed to the earth, and that he cut his hair short in mourning, this last a poignant reminder of Achilles last gift to Patroclus on his funeral pyre: "he laid a strand of hair in the hands of his beloved companion, and the whole company was moved to tears."

Another hint that Alexander looked to Achilles to help him to Express his grief can be found in the campaign, shortly after these events, against a tribe called the Cossaeans. Plutarch says that they were killed as an offering to the spirit of hephaestion, and it is possible to imagine that Alexander might have followed in the spirit of Achilles, the murder of "the twelve noble young men" near the funeral of Patroclus pyre.

Arrian States that all his sources agree that "within two days after Hephaestions death Alexander tasted no food and paid no attention in any way to his bodily needs, but lay on my bed and crying now sad, now in the silence of grief." Alexander ordered mourning throughout the Empire. Arrian tells us that "many comrades from respect for Alexander, dedicated themselves and their arms to the dead man." The army, too, remembered him, Alexander did not appoint anyone Hephaestions place as commander of the cavalry comrade, he "wished Hephaestions a name that will always be maintained in connection with it, so Hephaestions regiment continued to be called, and Hephaestions image still before him."

Alexander sent messengers to the Oracle at Siwa to ask if Amon would allow hephaestion to be worshipped as God. When the reply came saying he might be worshipped not as a God but as a divine hero, Alexander was pleased, and "from this day forward saw that his friend was honored with the rites of the heroes." He saw to it that temples were erected in Hephaestions memory, and shows that the cult came from can be found in the simple servant of the Board now in the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki, inscribed, "To the hero hephaestion".

Hephaestion was given a magnificent funeral. Its value according to various data sources like 10.000 12.000 talents, or talents, about 200.000.000 $, or $ 240.000.000 in the beginning of the 21st, Time is money. Alexander himself drove the funeral carriage part of the way back to Babylon with some of the driving entrusted to Hephaestions a friend of Perdiccas. In Babylon the funeral was held in Hephaestions honor. The contests ranged from literature to athletics, and 3.000 competitors took part, the festival eclipsing everything that came before as the cost and number of participants. Plutarch says that Alexander planned to spend ten thousand talents on the funeral and grave. He used Stasicrates, "as this artist was famous for his innovations, which combined an extraordinary degree of grandeur, arrogance and boasting," the design of the pyre for hephaestion.

The fire was sixty meters in height, has a square shape and built in stepped levels. The first level was decorated with two hundred and forty ships with Golden prows, each of them decorated with armed men with red banners filling the spaces between. On the second level were the torches with snakes at the base, gold wreaths in the middle and at the top, the flame surmounted by eagles. The third level showed a hunting scene, and the fourth battle of centaurs, all made in gold. On the fifth level, also in gold, were lions, and oxen, and sixth in the hands of Macedonia and Persia. The seventh and final level bore sculptures of sirens, hollowed out to conceal a choir who would sing a lament. It is possible that the pyre was not burnt, but that it was actually intended as a tomb or lasting memorial, if so, then it is likely that it was not completed, as there are references to expensive, uncompleted projects at the time of Aleksandrovs own death.

One last tribute left, and it is compelling in its simplicity and in that it shows the high esteem that Hephaistion held Alexander. The day of the funeral, he gave orders that the sacred fire in the temple should be extinguished. This was usually done only on the death of the great king.

                                     

4.1. Death and funeral. Amphipolis. (Амфиполь)

Based on the monogram found in the tomb of Amphipolis, the chief archaeologist Katerina Peristeri, says that the whole mound was a tomb monument for hephaestion, built between 325-300 BC

                                     

5. Image hephaestion in fiction. (Гефестион изображения в художественной литературе)

  • In the Oliver stone film Alexander, he is portrayed Jared Leto.
  • Hephaistion is a minor character in the 2010 Jo Graham, stealing fire.
  • Indian actor Akash Singh Rajput portrays the Hephaistion in 2017 Indian TV series Porus.
  • Cave, A. J. 2008 Roxanne Novel. Pavasta. Hardcover: ISBN 978-0-9802061-0-4, books: ISBN 978-0-9802061-1-1.
  • The Parthenon is the main character in the novels of Mary Renault fire from heaven and the Persian boy.
  • In the television version in 1961 Terence Rattigans play adventure story, Hephaistion, played by William Russell.
  • It is referred to as "Alexanders lover" in the song "mystery of love" with the 2017 movie Call me by name, the song received a nomination for the Academy award for best original song.
  • Hephaistion is a secondary character in Judith Tarr 1993 Lord of the two lands.
  • Hephaistion is the main character in Jeanne 2019 Reamess dancing with the Lion novels.

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What is best evidence that Alexander the Great and Hephaestion. Jan 6, 2020 Storm force winds from cold front popularly named Hephaestion have disrupted shipping in Greece, keeping ferries moored at the. .. Hephaestion Alexander the Great Hephaestion Tomb artnet News. Mar 1, 2016 The age old question. Were Alexander Hephaestion lovers? Or merely close friends? It has been debated, and commented on,. .. Hephaestion Hyperides and Cult of Hephaestion The Classical Review. Mar 14, 2019 Hephaestion c.357 324 Macedonian nobleman, closest friend and lover of king Alexander Great. During the expedition against Persia,. .. hephaestion hashtag on Instagram Photos and Videos. Jul 10, 2016 born, like Alexander, in around 365 BC. He son Amyntor, noble man of Macedonia. Hephaestion was a friend,. .. Hephaestion Hephaestion Livius. Hyperides and the Cult of Hephaestion Volume 53 Issue 2 P. Treves.. .. Hephaestion Greek tomb was for Alexander the Greats friend Hephaestion BBC. Oct 1, 2015 archaeologist investigating an ancient Greek tomb from era of Alexander the Great has suggested it was a funeral shrine for his closest. .. Hephaestion Alexander the Great, Relationship with Hephaestion History Channel. Alexanders closest was. Hephaestion, friend throughout his childhood, adolescence, and even as King. Aristotle described their. .. Hephaestion Phantis. Oct 5, 2015 Find out why archaeologists believe massive ancient tomb may have been a monument to Hephaestion, Alexander the Greats general and. .. Hephaestion 21 Best Hephaestion images Alexander the great, Ancient greece. alexander hephaestions dream of becoming achilles and patroclus.. Hephaestion he too is alexander the great & hephaestion on Spotify. Buy or license direct from photographer this stunning image of Alexander The Great Kissing Hephaestion, Tapestry At Hampton Court, London, U.. .. Hephaestion Hephaestion Ancient History Encyclopedia. Other articles where Hephaestion is discussed: Alexander the Great: Campaign eastward to Central Asia: …commanded by Alexanders oldest friend,. .. Were Alexander the Great and Hephaestion lovers? History Stack. Hephaestions Encheiridion is most influential text in the history metrical scholarship. It has been superseded for some genres of Greek verse but remains. .. Hephaestion Were Alexander the Great and Hephaestion lovers? Ancient Heroes. Jun 3, 2019 That doesnt what said Hephaestion was false. But it does mean he probably cared less its veracity than about the. .. Hephaestion Hephaestion Macedonian general Britannica. 3838 Posts See Instagram photos and videos from hephaestion hashtag.. .. Hephaestion Hephaestion Google Arts & Culture. Aug 2, 2015 Video clip taken from History Channels Alexander the Great Documentary.. .. Hephaestion What was REAL relationship Between Alexander the Great and. May 20, 2014 Hephaestion was a member of Alexander Greats personal bodyguard the Macedonian kings closest lifelong friend and advisor.. .. Hephaestion Hephaestion on Metre – A Translation and Commentary brill. Greek: Ήφαιστίων Hephaestion Amyntoros, born ca. 356 died Autumn 324 BC, son of Amyntor, a Macedonian aristocrat. Boon companion. .. Hephaestion Storm Hephaestion Disrupts Shipping in Greece. Hephaestion, son Amyntor, was an ancient Macedonian nobleman and a general in army of Alexander the Great..

Bias in view of Hephaestion alexandersrighthand.

Im currently doing some research on Hephaestion.and coming a bit short in terms of sources and information. Can anyone suggest some. Hephaestion DeviantArt. ChariTEA: Casa Ruby. 5% of this blends sales will benefit the charity. Casa Ruby is the only Bilingual Multicultural LGBT Organization providing life saving. Hephaestion on metre in SearchWorks catalog. Head of Hephaestion. Unknown. Greek, about 320 B.C. Marble.





Hephaestion, Apotelesmatica, Book I.

D. 324 bc,Macedonian noble. Perhaps the most intimate friend of Alexander 2 the Great, he came to prominence after the death of Philotas 330, when he. He too is alexander the great & hephaestion on Spotify. Hephaestion son of Amyntor companion of Alexander the Great → pedia entry 324 34 Alexander allows Hephaestion to read one of his private letters. Hephaestion hashtag on Twitter. The meaning, origin and history for the user submitted name Hephaestion. Translation of Hephaestion in English tlon. Hephaestion charges alongside his lifelong friend, Alexander the Great.


Hephaestion.

Other articles where Hephaestion is discussed: Alexander the Great: Campaign eastward to Central Asia: …commanded by Alexanders oldest friend,. Hephaestion Visually. Im back with my little research! I spent a free morning looking for other interesting sources about Hephaestion the other. Hephaestion World Of Alexander The Great. Their relationship was soon.





Hephaestion by Meekim Nguyen on Prezi.

Alexander & Hephaestion book. Read reviews from worlds largest community for readers. This is a story of love and devotion that had its origin. Hephaestion on Metre J. M. Van Ophuijsen 9789004084520. Hephaestion was a member of Alexander the Greats personal bodyguard and the Macedonian kings closest and lifelong friend and advisor. Alexander Hephaestion Love story Stay YouTube. Hephaestion was approximately Alexanders age, perhaps a little older, although they were likely at most only separated by a year or two. Hephaestion Истории Wattpad. Hephaestion, Amyntorin poika, oli makedonialainen sotapaallikko ja Aleksanterin sydanystava lapsuudesta saakka. Teini ikaisina he olivat olleet yhdessa. Hephaestion Brown University. Hephaestion is a Great General in the Conquests of Alexander scenario in Civilization VI. Unique.





User submitted name Hephaestion Behind the Name.

Abstract. This article explores the intense and ultimately embittered relationship between Frederick, prince of Wales and John, Lord Hervey,. Hephaestion Stories Wattpad. Hephaestion: De veterum peri poiēmatos doctrina, Vrastislaviae apud G. Koebner, 1890, also by Max Consbruch page images at HathiTrust US access only. 21 Best Hephaestion images Alexander the great, Ancient greece. Hephaestion. (Ἡφαιστίων. 1. A Macedonian, celebrated as the friend of Alexander the Great, with whom he had been brought up. He died at Ecbatana, B.C. 325. Alexander The Great: Gay or Straight? Forbes. Продолжительность: 1:30. 3D Printable Relief dedicated to Hephaestion by Scan The World. Example sentences from pedia that use the word hephaestion: He portrayed Hephaestion, the closest friend of Alexander the Great. Jared Leto.


Hephaestion Macedonian general Britannica.

An Archive of Our Own, a project of the Organization for Transformative Works. Hephaestion Amyntoros kizzikat LiveJournal. Hephaestion and Alexander both died the same way it seems, about a year apart​. Why is Malaria Typhoid Fever so prominent vs poisoning in. The Amphipolis monument was erected in honour of Hephaestion. Alexander and hephaestions dream of becoming achilles and patroclus.





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