Homer - deified people. Homer, the legendary author of the Iliad and Odyssey, two epic poems, which are the Central works of ancient Greek literature. The Il ..



Homer, the legendary author of the Iliad and Odyssey, two epic poems, which are the Central works of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad is set during the Trojan war, the ten-year siege of Troy by a coalition of Greek kings. It is aimed at a quarrel between king Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles a period of several weeks in the last year of the war. Odyssey focuses on a ten-year journey home of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy. Many accounts of Homers life circulated in antiquity, the most common is that he was a blind bard from Ionia, the region on the Central coast of Anatolia, in modern Turkey. Modern scholars believe these accounts are legendary.

Homeric question – to whom, when, where and under what circumstances the Iliad and the Odyssey were written – continues to be debated. Generally speaking, the modern scientific view falls into two groups. One considers that most of "the Iliad" and some "Odyssey" presented the works of one poets genius. Another considers the Homeric poems must be the result of a process of working and reworking many investors, and that "Homer" is best seen as a label for all tradition. It is generally accepted that the poems were written near the end of VIII or beginning of the VII century BC.

In the Homeric poems of Greece, also known as Epic of the Greek literary language, which shows a mixture of features of the ionic and Aeolic dialects from different centuries, the dominant influence of the East ion. Most researchers believe that the poems were originally transmitted orally. From ancient times to the present day, the influence of the Homeric epics in Western civilization was large, inspiring many of his most famous works of literature, music, visual arts and cinema. Homeric epic was the greatest influence on ancient Greek culture and education, Plato, Homer was just the one who "taught Greece" pepaideuken ten Hellada.


1. Works attributed to Homer. (Произведения, приписываемые Гомеру)

Today, only the Iliad and Odyssey, associated with the name of Homer. In ancient times a very large number of other works sometimes attributed to him, including the Homeric hymns, the contest of Homer and Hesiod, the little Iliad, the return, the Thebaid, in the past, the epigones, the comic mini-epic Batrachomyomachia "the frog-mouse war", Margites, the capture of Oechalia, and Phocais. These claims are not considered to be true today and not common in the ancient world. Like many legends surrounding the Homers of life, they show little more than the role of Homer in ancient Greek culture.


2. The ancient biographies of Homer. (Древние жизнеописания Гомера)

Many of the traditions prevalent in the ancient world relative to Homer, most of whom lost. Modern scientific consensus is that they have no value as history.

Some of the claims were established early and often repeated. They include that Homer was blind taking as self-referential a passage describing a blind bard, Demodocus, that he was born on the island of Chios, he was the son of the river Meles and a nymph Critheïs that he was a wandering bard, he composed various other works, "Homerica," that he died either in iOS and not being able to solve the riddle posed by the fishermen, and the different explanations for the name "Homer". The two most famous ancient biographies of Homer life of Homer by pseudo-Herodotus, and the contest of Homer and Hesiod.


3.1. The history of Homeric scholarship. Ancient. (Древние)

The study of Homer is one of the oldest themes in science goes back to antiquity. However, the purpose of homeremedies changed for thousands of years. The earliest preserved comments on Homer and his treatment of the gods, which hostile critics, such as poet Xenophanes of Colophon was condemned as immoral. In an allegorist of Theagenes from the Regia said to have defended Homer, arguing that Homers poems are allegories. The Iliad and the Odyssey were widely used as teaching texts in ancient Greek and Hellenistic cultures. It was the first literary works to teach all students. The Iliad, especially the first few books were much more closely studied than the Odyssey during the Hellenistic and Roman periods.

As a result, the poems prominently in classical Greek education, extensive commentaries designed to explain the parts of poems that were culturally and linguistically difficult. In the Hellenistic and Roman periods, many translators, especially the Stoics, who believed that the Homeric poems gave the teachings of the Stoics, to consider them as allegories that contain hidden wisdom. Perhaps in part because the Homeric poems wide use in education, many authors believe that Homers original purpose was to educate. The homers of wisdom became so widely accepted that it began to look almost the prototype of the philosopher. Byzantine scholars such as Thessalonica Eustathius and John Tzetzes produced by the review, expansion, and scholium to Homer, especially in the twelfth century. Review Eustathiuss one of the Iliad is massive, sprawling over nearly 4.000 oversized pages in the twenty-first century printed version, and his comment to "the Odyssey" nearly 2.000.


3.2. The history of Homeric scholarship. Modern. (Современные)

In 1488 by the Greek scholar Demetrios Chalkokondyles published the edition Princeps of the Homeric poems. The earliest modern Homeric scholars have started from the same basic approaches to the Homeric poems as scholars in ancient times. Allegorical interpretation of the Homeric poems, which were so common in ancient times, returned to become the predominant point of view of the Renaissance. The humanists of the Renaissance were praised Homer as the archetypal wise poet whose works contain the hidden wisdom, disguised with allegory. In Western Europe in the Renaissance, Virgil was more readable than Homer, but Homer is often seen through the prism of the Virgilian. In 1664, contrary to the widespread praise of Homer as the embodiment of wisdom, Francois Hedelin, Abbe dAubignac wrote a stinging attack on the Homeric poems, claiming that they are inconsistent, immoral, tasteless, and without style that Homer never existed and that the poems were hastily cobbled together by incompetent Editors from unrelated shouted the song. Fifty years later, English scholar Richard Bentley came to the conclusion that Homer really existed, but that he was uncertain, prehistoric oral poet whose works have little relation to the "Iliad" and "Odyssey," as they were transferred. According to Bentley, Homer "wrote a sequel of songs and rhapsodies, to be sung himself for small earnings and good cheer at festivals and other days of fun, in. he wrote for people, and Odysseis for the other sex. These loose songs were not collected together in the form of an epic poem till Pisistratus time, about 500 years later."

Friedrich August wolfs Prolegomena ad Homerum, published in 1795, argued that much of the material later included in the Iliad and Odyssey were originally written in the tenth century BC in the form of short, individual oral songs that were passed down by oral tradition for nearly four hundred years before you meet in the classic versions of the Iliad and the Odyssey in the sixth century BC literate authors. Once recorded, Wolf argued that these two poems were carefully edited, modernized, and eventually formed into their current state as an artistic unity. Wolf and analyst of the school, who led the field in the nineteenth century, sought to restore the original poetry, which was thought to have been hidden later growths. In analyst of the school were two camps: the supporters of the "lay theory", which stated that the Iliad and Odyssey were collected from a large number of short independent songs, and the advocates of the "nuclear theory", who believe that Homer was originally composed abridged versions of "the Iliad" and "Odyssey", which later poets expanded and revised. A small group of scientists opposed to analysts, called "Unitarians", seen then as improved, the work of one inspired poet. About 1830, the Central concerns of Homeric scholars, decision or not "Homer" actually existed, when and how the Homeric poems arose, how they were transferred, when and how they were finally recorded, and their General unity, was called "the Homeric question".

After the First world war, the analyst, the school began to fall into disfavor among Homeric scholars. He will not die completely, but it was increasingly viewed as extravagant a dead end. Starting around 1928, Milman parry and albert Lord, after his studies of folk bards in the Balkans, developed the "oral-formulaic theory" that the Homeric poems were originally composed on the basis of the impromptu speeches, which drew on the traditional epithets and poetic formulas. This theory has found very wide scientific recognition and explained many previously puzzling features of the Homeric poems, including their extremely archaic language and the widespread use of stock epithets, and their other "duplicate" features. Many scientists have come to the conclusion that "the Homeric question" is finally answered. Meanwhile, Neoanalysts have sought to bridge the gap between analysts and Unitarians. In Neoanalysts have sought to trace the relationship between the poems of Homer and other epic poems, now lost, but of which modern scientists have some patchy knowledge. Knowledge of earlier versions of the epics can be obtained from anomalies in the structure and detail in our extant versions of "the Iliad" and "Odyssey." These anomalies point to an earlier version of the Iliad in which Ajax played a more prominent role, in which the Achaean Embassy to Achilles consisting of a variety of characters, and in which Patroclus was actually mistaken for Achilles from the Trojans. They point to an earlier version of the Odyssey in which Telemachus went in search of news from the father of Menelaus in Sparta, but to the Opera "Idomeneo" on Crete, where he met with his father in Crete and in collusion with him to return to Ithaca in the guise of a soothsayer Theoclymenus, and in which Penelope recognized Odysseus much earlier in the narrative and in collusion with him in the destruction of the suitors. Neoanalysis can be seen as a form of analysis principles of oral theory, acknowledging as it does the existence and influence of pre-existing tales and assessing the technique of a poet in their adaptation to the Iliad and Odyssey.


3.3. The history of Homeric scholarship. Modern. (Современные)

Most modern scholars, though they disagree on other questions about the Genesis of the poem agree that the Iliad and the Odyssey were created by the same author, on the basis of "the many variations in the narrative vein, theology, ethics, vocabulary, and geographical perspective, and obviously imitative character of some passages of the "Odyssey" to "the Iliad"." Almost all scholars agree that Iliad and Odyssey are one poem that each poem shows a clear design, and that they are not just strung from an unrelated song. Recognized also that each poem was written mostly by one author, who probably relied on older oral traditions. Nearly all scientists agree that the Doloneia in book X of the Iliad is not part of the original poem, and then inserted another poet.

Some ancient scholars believed that Homer was an eyewitness to the Trojan war, others thought that he lived to be 500 years later. Modern scientists continue to argue the question of the date of the poems. A long history of oral transmission is the basis of the composition of the poem, complicating the search for the exact date. On the one hand, Richard Janko proposed date for both the poems of the eighth century BC on the basis of linguistic analysis and statistics. Barry B. Powell the desired composition of the Iliad and Odyssey, somewhere between 800 and 750 BC, on the basis of statements from Herodotus, who lived in the late fifth century BC, that Homer lived four hundred years before his time "and no more" καὶ οὐ πλέοσι, and that poetry, not to mention the Hoplite battle tactics, inhumation, or literacy. Martin Litchfield West argued that "the Iliad" echoes of the poetry of Hesiod and that it should be composed of 660-650 BC at the earliest, with the Odyssey for a generation later. He also interpreterpath passages in the Iliad, shows how knowledge about historical events that occurred in the ancient near East in the middle of the seventh century BC, including the destruction of Babylon in 689 BC Sennacherib and the sacking of Thebes by Ashurbanipal in 663 / 4 BL. On the other hand, some American scholars such as Gregory Nagy, refer to "Homer" as a constantly evolving tradition, which grew much more stable than traditionally developed, but not completely stop to continue changing and evolving until the mid-second century BC.

"Homer" is name of unknown etymological origin, around which many theories have been erected in ancient times. One of these relationships was the Greek ὅμηρος homēros, "hostage", or "surety". The explanations offered by modern scholars, as a rule, reflect their common position on the Homeric question. Nagy interprets it as "he who fits with the song." The West has advanced as the Greek and Phoenician etymology.


4. The historicity of the Homeric epic and the Homeric society. (Историчность гомеровского эпоса и гомеровский общество)

Scientists continue to discuss such issues as: whether the Trojan war actually occurred – and if so, when and where and to what extent the society depicted by Homer on the basis of his own or one that was, even at that time, poetry, songs, known only as a legend. The Homeric epics largely in the East and in the centre of the Mediterranean, with some scattered references to Egypt, Ethiopia and other faraway land, in a martial society that resembles the Greek world a little before the suggested date of composition of the poem.

In Greek history, the sack of Troy refers to 1184 BC. In the nineteenth century there was widespread scientific skepticism that the Trojan war never happened and that Troy did not exist, but in 1873, Heinrich Schliemann announced to the world that he found the ruins of Homers Troy in Hissarlik in modern Turkey. Some modern scholars believe that the destruction of Troy were about 1220 BC, was the origin of the myth of the Trojan war, others that the poem was inspired by several similar sieges that took place over the centuries.

Most scientists now agree that the Homeric poems depict the customs and elements of the material world, which are derived from different periods of Greek history. For example, the characters in the poems to use weapons of bronze, characteristic of the bronze age in which the poems are located, and not the late iron age, during which they were composed, but the same heroes iron age cremated and not buried as they were in the Bronze age. In some parts of the Homeric poems, the characters are accurately described as carrying large shields like the ones the soldiers used during the Mycenaean period, but in other places, they instead describe carrying small shields, which were widely used during the time when the poems were written in the early iron age.

In the Iliad 10.260–265, Odysseus is described as wearing a helmet made of boars tusks. These helmets are not worn during the run, but were typically aristocratic warriors between 1600 and 1150 BC. The decipherment of linear B In the 1950s, Michael Ventris and continued archaeological research has increased the understanding of modern scholars of Aegean civilization, which in many ways is similar to ancient middle East more than a society described by Homer. Some aspects of the Homeric world just made up, for example, in the Iliad 22.145–56 describes that there are two springs that run near the city of Troy, which works with hot steam and the other which runs cold. It was here that Hector takes his final stand against Achilles. Archaeologists, however, found no evidence that the sources of this description did not exist.


5. Homeric language. (Гомеровский язык)

The Homeric epics are written in an artificial literary language or Kunstsprache is only used in epic poetry the hexameter. Homeric Greek shows features a variety of regional Greek dialects and periods, but it is fundamentally based on ionic Greek, in accordance with the tradition that Homer was from Ionia. Linguistic analysis suggests that the "Iliad" was written a little earlier than the Odyssey, and that Homers formula to preserve the old features than other parts of the poem.


6. Homeric style. (Гомеровский стиль)

The Homeric poems were written in unrhymed hexameter dactylic verse, the Greek feet was the quantity, not stress based. Homer often uses phrases such as epithets, Homeric formulas, comparison, scene type, ring composition and repetition. These habits help the bard, extemporizing, and is characteristic of oral poetry. For example, the main words of the Homeric sentence, usually placed at the beginning, and literate poets like Virgil or Milton to use more and more complex syntactic constructions. Then Homer extends these ideas in the following paragraphs, a technique called parataxis.

The so-called scene type typischen Scenen, was named the Walter Arend in 1933. He noted that Homer often, to describe frequently repeated actions such as eat, pray, fight and walk in wardrobe, used blocks a set of phrases in the sequence, which were then developed by the poet. Analyst of the school had to consider these repetitions as the UN-Homer, while Arend interpreted them philosophically. Parry and Lord to note that the conventions in many other cultures.

The composition of the rings or the Best structure is observed in the Homeric epics. Opinion differs as to whether these cases represent a conscious artistic device, a mnemonic aid, or a spontaneous feature of human narration.

Both of the Homeric poems begin with an invocation to the Muse. In the Iliad the poet invokes her to sing "the wrath of Achilles" and "Odysseus", he asks her to sing "man of many ways". Later a similar discovery employed by Virgil in his "Aeneid".


7. Text transmission. (Передача текста)

In the orally transmitted Homeric poems were put in writing at some point between the eighth and sixth centuries BC. Some scientists believe that they were dictated to a scribe poet, and that our inherited version of the "Iliad" and "Odyssey" were in origin oral-dictated texts. Albert Lord noted that the Balkan bards, he was redesigned and augmented their songs in the process to dictate to them. Some scientists suggest that a similar process of revision and expansion occurred when the Homeric poems were first written. Other scholars argue that after the poems were created in the VIII century, they are still passed down orally with considerable revision, as they were not written in the VI century. After textualisation, the poems were each divided into 24 rhapsodes, today called books, and are marked with letters of the Greek alphabet. Most scholars attribute the book of the divisions of the Hellenistic scholars of Alexandria, in Egypt. Tracks divisions on to the classical period. Himself very little credit Homer with the departments.

In ancient times it was widely believed that the Homeric poems were collected and organized in Athens in the late sixth century BCE peisistratus died in 528 / 7 BC, In what subsequent scholars have dubbed "Peisistratean recension". The idea that the Homeric poems were originally transmitted orally and first written during the rule of peisistratus is mentioned in the I century BC Roman orator Cicero, and is also used in a number of other surviving sources, including two ancient lives of Homer. From about 150 BC, the Texts of the Homeric poems, seem to be relatively developed. After the establishment of the Alexandrian library, Homeric scholars such as Zenodotus of Ephesus, Aristophanes of Byzantium, and particularly of Aristarchus of Samothrace helped to create the canonical text.

The first printed edition of Homer was issued in 1488 in Milan, Italy. Today researchers use medieval manuscripts, papyri and other sources, some say "multi-text" view, instead of looking for one final text. The nineteenth century publication of Arthur Ludwich mainly Aristarchuss work, while the van Thiels 1991, 1996 corresponds to the medieval Vulgate. Others, such as Martin Wests 1998-2000 or W. T. Allen, somewhere between these two extremes.

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