Direction of fit - philosophy of mind. The technical term direction of fit is used to describe the differences offered by two related sets of opposing terms: ..


Direction of fit

The technical term direction of fit is used to describe the differences offered by two related sets of opposing terms:

  • Narrower, more specific set, word-in-the-world, i.e., word-of-fit-world and world-to-word, that is, world-to-fit-the word used by the supporters of the theory of speech acts, such as John Searle.
  • A more General set of mind-to-world and world-to-mind, i.e., world-to-fit-mind philosophers used reason and.

1. In General. (В Целом)

In the philosophy of mind, faith and mind-to-world direction of fit. The belief that p to say, he depicts the world as in a state of Affairs such that P is true. Beliefs, some philosophers have argued, aims at the truth and so aim to fit the world. Faith is satisfied when it fits in the world.

Desire, on the other hand, usually expresses have not yet realized the state of Affairs and so have the world-to-mind direction of fit. A desire that P, unlike faith, does not represent the world was in that condition that p, and he expresses the desire that the world be such that P is true. Desire is a condition that is satisfied when the world fits.

A way to account for the difference is that a rational person who holds the belief that P when confronted with evidence that not-p, will revise his beliefs, while the person who desires that P can retain his desire that p in the face of evidence that not-p.

For the philosopher, the language of the word-to-world fit occurs when, say, a sports journalist correctly names Jones as a goal, and if the journalist mistakenly names Smith as the goal scorer, the printed account does not display a word-to-world, and needs to be changed so that it matches the real world. On the contrary, there is a world-to-word fits, when the fan of the team Kuznetsov believes that they deserved to win the match, even though they lost. In this case, the world should change so that sports fans want to be.

However, in the case of, say, judge the delivery of the death sentence the offender found guilty by a jury, the statements of the judges to change the world, through that statement, and, in this case, the judge is generating a world-to-word-to-world fit see below. So, if the judge is upheld, the world must be changed to match the contents of the judges of the utterance, i.e. the offender must be executed.


2. In medieval philosophy. (В средневековой философии)

According to Thomas Aquinas, there are two kinds of "truth" Veritas both understood as the correspondence between the intellectus or mind the words of the oratio and the world of "things", RES:

The truth is the equation of the adaequatio intellectus et Rei, as said above. Now in my mind that is the cause of all, is connected with his rule and measure, while the reverse is the case with the mind that receives its knowledge from things.

When therefore things are the measure and rule of mind, truth consists in the equation of mind to stuff like this happening in the us. For as a thing, or not, our thoughts and our words about him-true or false. But when the mind is the rule or measure of things, truth consists in the equation of the thing to mind, as well as the work of the artist is true when it is consistent with his art. Now as works of art pertaining to art and justice related to the law with which they accord. So the Gods of justice, which sets all right, conformable to his wisdom, which is the law of his justice, is suitably called Truth. Thus we also in human Affairs speak of the truth of justice. italics in the original


3. In the theory of speech acts. (В теории речевых актов)

Perhaps the first spoke of "direction of fit" was the philosopher J. L. Austin. Austin does not use the distinction between different directions of fit to contrast commands or expressions of intention of approval, desires or beliefs. It better distinguishes between different ways of claiming the goods of a particular type.

In the broader discussion of issues related to the differences between, say, mistakenly called a triangle, a square and B is false in describing a triangular object area, Austin distinguished between what he called:

  • "the burden of match ": in the case of one wanting to match X and y, the difference between the corresponding X and Y and the line Y on X, and.
  • "direction of fit ": in the case of naming something, the difference between the fitting name of the item and the side item to a name.

The concept of direction of compliance can also be applied to speech acts: e.g., assertions, guesses, and speculation is the word-to-world direction as well as commands and promises world-to-word direction of fit.

John Searle and Daniel Vanderveken assert that there are only four possible "directions of fit" in language:

1. The word-to-world direction of fit. In achieving success of fit the propositional content of the utterance fits an independently existing state of affairs in the world. E.g.: "We are married". 2. The world-to-word direction of fit. To achieve success of fit the world must change to match the propositional content of the utterance. E.g.: "Will you marry me?", "I want to marry him", "Youd just better marry her, buddy!", etc. 3. The double direction of fit. To achieve success of fit the world is thereby altered to fit the propositional content by representing the world as being so altered, unlike sense 2. E.g.: "I declare you man and wife". The doubled direction is therefore always world-to-word-to-world. For obvious reasons, Searle calls sentences of this type declarations. 4. The null or empty direction of fit. There is no direct question of achieving success of fit between the propositional content and the world, because success of fit is presupposed by the utterance. E.g.: "Im glad I married you" presupposes that the speaker is married to the listener.

Searle used this notion of "direction of fit" to create a taxonomy of illocutionary acts.

Although Elizabeth Anscombe never used the term "direction of fit", Searle has strongly argued that the following passage from her work intention, clearly, "the best illustration" of the distinction between the task "world of words":

§32. Lets look at the person, avoiding the city with a shopping list in hand. Now it is clear that the attitude of this list is that he actually buys is one and the same whether his wife gave him a list, or is it its own list, and that there is a different attitude, where the list is made by a detective following him. If he made the list itself, it was an expression of intention, if his wife gave him, he has a role order. What then is the identical relation to what happens in order and intentions, which do not share records? It is this: if the list and what the man actually buys do not agree, and if that in and of itself is an error, the error is not in the list, but in Le Mans, whether the detectives that the man actually buys do not agree, then the error in the record.


4. In philosophy of mind. (В философии сознания)

According to Velleman, when used in the field of philosophy of mind, the concept of direction equivalence is a distinctive feature between two types of intentional mental States:

Facta singular factum, states that currently exist are states with a mind-to-world direction of fit. Examples include beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and fantasies. In the event of a mismatch between the mental state and the world, the mental state is in some sense false or wrong and should perhaps be changed. Facienda singular faciendum, states that are yet to exist are states with a world-to-mind direction of fit. Examples include intentions and desires. If there is a mismatch between the mental state and the world, the world is in some sense wrong and should perhaps be changed.

In some forms of mind-body dualism, the appropriate Factum and to create your must be present in the mind of people to act consciously. If a person has the belief that action will lead to state S, and there is a desire that States have made, then it will perform the action directly arising from the simultaneous presence of two mental States, does not require any further explanation.

According to Velleman:

The term "direction of fit" refers to the two ways in which attitudes can relate propositions to the world. In cognitive attitudes, the proposition is grasped as a pattern for the world to follow. The propositional object of desire is regarded not as fact -- not, that is, as factum, having been brought about -- but rather as faciendum, to be brought about: its regarded not as true but as to be made true.

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There are many theorists who would describe themselves as being committed to the claim that belief aims at the truth who are committed to. A Taxonomy of Illocutionary Acts University Digital Conservancy. 3a, actin flow direction in the cells is color coded direction from the center of the Bins of 15° are shown with Gaussian fit and mean ± SEM. EllipSeeIt: Visualizing Strength and Direction of Correlation. Deontic Process Modeling: Control Implications of Direction of Fit. 41 Pages Posted: 29 May 2012. See all articles by Ronald Marlin Lee. Effect of Smoke Exhaust Openings Placement Direction of Tunnel. The technical term direction of fit is used to describe the distinctions that are offered by two related sets of opposing terms: The more general set of mind to ​world. Reconceiving Direction of Fit Avery Archer. The philosophical concept of Direction of Fit PHIL UA 41 THE NATURE OF VALUES from PHIL UA 41 at New York University.

Direction of Fit Contemporary Philosophy Truth Scribd.

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Direction dependent background fitting for the Fermi GBM data.

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