Emperor of Japan - deified people. The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial family and the head of state of Japan. According to the 1947 Constitution ..

Emperor of Japan

Emperor of Japan

The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial family and the head of state of Japan. According to the 1947 Constitution, it is defined as a "symbol of state and unity of the people." Historically it is also the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japan, the Emperor is called the tennō, literally "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for Emperor was once common but is now considered obsolete.

Currently, the Emperor of Japan is the only head of state in the world with an English title of "Emperor". The Imperial House of Japan is the oldest monarchical house in the world. Historical origins of the emperors lie in the late Kofun period, 3rd–6th century ad, but according to the traditional account of the Kojiki Nihon Shoki ready 712 and 720, Japan was founded in 660 BC by the Emperor Jimmu, who was said to have been a direct descendant of the sun goddess Amaterasu. Naruhito is the current Emperor of Japan. He acceded to the chrysanthemum throne after the abdication of his father, now-honorary Emperor Akihito on may 1, 2019 at midnight slot.

The role of the Emperor of Japan has historically alternated between a largely ceremonial symbolic role and the actual Imperial ruler. Since the establishment of the first Shogunate in 1199, the emperors of Japan have rarely taken on the role of the Supreme commander of the battle, unlike many Western monarchs. Japanese emperors are almost always controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees. For example, in the period from 1192 to 1867, in the shōguns, or their shikken Regents in kamakura 1203-1333, they were the de facto rulers of Japan though they were nominally appointed by the Emperor. After the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the Emperor was the embodiment of all the Supreme power in the realm, as enshrined in the Meiji Constitution of 1889. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1947 the role of the Emperor was given a ceremonial head of state without even the nominal political forces.

Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Imperial Palace has been called Kyūjō 宮城, later 皇居 Kōkyo, and on the former site of Edo castle in Tokyo, capital of Japan. Earlier emperors resided in Kyoto, the ancient capital for almost eleven centuries. The birthday of the emperors are currently 23 February is a public holiday.


1. The role. (Роль)

Unlike most constitutional monarchies, the Emperor is not the nominal head. Article 65 explicitly vests Executive power in the Cabinet, which the Prime Minister is the leader. The Emperor also not the commander-in-chief of the Japan self-defense forces. In Japan self-defense forces act of 1954 also explicitly vests this role with Prime Minister.

The powers of the emperors are limited to only the most important ceremonial functions. Article 4 of the Constitution stipulates that the Emperor "performs only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and no powers related to government". It also provides that "consultations and the approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state" Article 3. Article 4 also States that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided by law.

Although the Emperor formally appoints the Prime Minister to office, article 6 of the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate, "how is the food", without giving the Emperor the right to refuse admission.

Article 6 of the Constitution delegates to the Emperor the following ceremonial functions:

  • The appointment of the chief judge of the Supreme Court like Cabinet Ministers.
  • The appointment of the Prime Minister designated by the diet.

Emperors and other obligations enshrined in article 7 of the Constitution, which States that "the Emperor, with the counsel and approval of the Cabinet carries out the following actions relating to the Affairs of the state, on behalf of the people." In practice, all these responsibilities are carried out only in accordance with the mandatory instructions of the Cabinet:

  • Promulgation of amendments to the Constitution, laws, government decrees and treaties.
  • Convocation of the diet.
  • The proclamation of General election of members of Parliament.
  • Certification of General and special Amnesty, commutation and of punishment, reprieve and restoration of rights.
  • The awarding of honors.
  • Certificate of appointment and dismissal of Ministers of state and other officers provided by law, and the powers and credentials of ambassadors and Ministers.
  • The dissolution of the house of representatives.
  • The reception of foreign ambassadors and Ministers.
  • Confirmation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided by law.
  • Performing ceremonial functions. (Выполняя церемониальные функции)

Regular ceremonies of the Emperor with a constitutional basis of the Imperial awards Shinninshiki the Imperial Palace in Tokyo and the speech from the throne ceremony in the House of councillors in the national Parliament. The latter ceremony opens ordinary and extra sessions of the diet. Regular session opens in January of each year, and after new elections to the House of representatives. Extra sessions usually convene in the autumn and are opened then.


2. History. (История)

Although the Emperor was a symbol of connection with the past, the extent of the authority of the Emperor sharply varied throughout Japanese history. At the beginning of the 7th century, the Emperor was called "Son of Heaven".


2.1. History. Origin

The title of Emperor was borrowed from China, being derived from Chinese characters and was retroactively applied to the legendary Japanese rulers, who ruled until 7-8 centuries of our era.

According to the traditional account of the Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. Modern historians agree that the emperors of the late 3rd century BC ruler traditionally known as the legendary Emperor Ōjin. Emperor Ankō the 5th century BC, traditionally the 20th, the Emperor is the earliest generally agreed upon historical ruler of all or part of Japan. The reign of Emperor Kinmei S. 509 – 571 ad the 29th Emperor, is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to appoint the audited period, however, the conventionally accepted names and dates of the first emperors were not confirmed as "traditional" until the reign of Emperor Kanmu 737-806, the 50th sovereign of the Yamato dynasty.

Archaeological information about the earliest historical rulers of Japan may lie in the ancient tombs known as Kofun built in the early 3rd century and early 7th century ad. However, since the Meiji period, the Imperial household Agency has refused to open the Kofun to the public or to archaeologists, citing their desire not to disturb the spirits of the past emperors. In December 2006, the Imperial court reversed its position and decided to allow researchers to enter the Kofun with no restrictions.


2.2. History. Fractional control. (Частичный контроль)

There have been six non-Imperial families who have controlled Japanese emperors: the Soga 530s–645, Fujiwara 850s–1070, in 1159-1180 years the Taira, the Minamoto and the kamakura Bakufu 1192-1333, 1336-1565 Ashikaga, and Tokugawa 1603-1867. However, every shogun from the Minamoto, Ashikaga and Tokugawa families must be officially recognized by the emperors, which were still the source of sovereignty, although they could not exercise its powers independently of the Shogunate.


2.3. History. Disputes. (Споры)

The growth of the samurai class from the 10th century gradually weakened the power of the Imperial family in space, which leads to a temporary instability. The emperors, as we know, came into conflict with the ruling of the shogun from time to time. In some cases, such as Emperor Go-Tobas 1221 rebellion against the kamakura Shogunate and the 1336, the Kenmu restoration under Emperor go-Daigo, show the power struggle between the Imperial court and the military government of Japan.


2.4. History. Territorial issues. (Территориальные вопросы)

Until recent centuries, Japans territory does not include several remote regions of its modern territory. The name Nippon came into use only after a few centuries after the beginning of the current Imperial line. Centralized government only began to appear shortly before and during the time of Prince Shotoku 572-622. The Emperor was more like a revered embodiment of divine harmony, than the head of an actual governing administration. In Japan, it was always easy for ambitious lords hold actual power, as such positions were not inherently contrary to the position of emperors. Parliamentary government today continues a similar coexistence with the Emperor as have various shoguns, Regents, warlords, guardians, etc.

Historically the titles of tennō in Japanese have never included territorial designations as is the case with many European monarchs. The position of Emperor is a territory-independent phenomenon - the Emperor is the Emperor, even if he has followers only in one province, as it was sometimes with the southern and Northern courts.


2.5. History. Shōguns

From 1192 to 1867, sovereignty of state is shōguns, or their shikken Regents 1203-1333, whose authority was conferred by Imperial warrant. When Portuguese explorers first came into contact with the Japanese Dish, see period, they described Japanese conditions in analogy, likening the Emperor, with great symbolic authority but little political power, to the Pope, and the Shogun to secular European rulers, e.g. the Holy Roman Emperor. In accordance with the analogy, they even used the term "Emperor" with reference to the shōguns and Regents, for example, in the case of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, whom missionaries called "Emperor Taico-sama" of the Taikō and the honorable itself.


2.6. History. The Meiji Restoration. (Реставрация Мэйдзи)

After U.S. Navy Commodore Matthew C. Perrys Black ships forcibly opened Japan to foreign trade and the Shogunate proved unable to prevent the "barbaric" uninvited guest, the Emperor Kōmei began to assert himself politically. By the early 1860-ies, the relationship between the Imperial court and the Shogunate was changing radically. Disaffected domains and rōnin began to rally to the call of sonnō jōi "revere the Emperor, expel the barbarians". The domains of Satsuma and Chōshū, historic enemies of the Tokugawa, used this turmoil to unite their forces and won an important military victory outside of Kyoto against Tokugawa forces.

In 1868 the Meiji Emperor was restored to the nominal full power, and the Shogunate was abolished. In the new Constitution described the Emperor as "the head of the Empire, combining in himself the rights of sovereignty", whose rights included to sanction and promulgate laws, to execute them and to exercise "Supreme command of the army and Navy". Conference on public relations established in 1893 also made the Emperor the leader of the Imperial General staff.


2.7. History. The second world war. (Второй мировой войны)

The role of the Emperor as head of state, of the Shinto religion was used during the war, creating an Imperial cult that led to kamikaze bombers and other manifestations of fanaticism. This in turn has led to demand in the Potsdam Declaration for the elimination "for all time the authority and influence of those who deceived and misled the people of Japan to begin the conquest of the world." In State Shinto, the Emperor believed arahitogami of the living God. After the Japanese surrender, the allies issued the Shinto Directive separating Church and state in Japan.


2.8. History. The Current Constitution. (Действующая Конституция)

The Constitution provides for a parliamentary system of government and guarantees fundamental rights. Under its terms the Emperor of Japan is "the symbol of state and unity of the people" and performs a purely ceremonial role without the possession of sovereignty.

The Constitution, also known as the Constitution of Japan, "postwar Constitution" 戦後憲法, no sengo-Kenpō or "peace Constitution" 平和憲法, Heiwa-Kenpō, was drawn up under the allied occupation that followed World War II and was intended to replace the previous militarist Japan and a quasi-absolute monarchy system With a form of liberal democracy. Currently, this rigid document and no subsequent amendments have been made since its adoption.


2.9. History. Relation to Shinto. (Отношению к Синто)

In Japanese mythology, according to Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, the Emperor and his family are direct descendants of the sun goddess Amaterasu. During the Second world war, the role of the Emperor as the head of the Shinto religion was used, which led to the establishment of State Shinto and the Imperial cult. After the Second world war, the allies issued the Shinto, according to which the abolished state support of Shinto religion, leading to the humanity Declaration of the incumbent Emperor, who refuted the idea that the Emperor is a living divine being, and rejected the meaning of "myths and legends" for the emperors status. However, the emperors continued to perform many of the traditional rituals in private.


2.10. History. Education. (Образование)

The emperors have traditionally been an officer. Lately, the Emperor Taisho was the counts feet Maresuke, Emperor Showa was a Marshal-Admiral Marquis Tōgō Heihachirō, and Emperor Akihito was Elizabeth gray Vining as well as Shinzo Koizumi as their Tutors.


3. Addressing and naming. (Адресации и именования)

There are two Japanese words equivalent to the English word "Emperor": tennō 天皇, "heavenly sovereign", which is used exclusively to refer to the Emperor of Japan, and kōtei 皇帝, which is mainly used to describe non-Japanese emperors. Sumeramikoto "Imperial man" is also used in old Japanese. The term tennō was used by the emperors up until the middle Ages, and then, after a period of disuse, it was again used in the 19th century. In English, the term Mikado 帝 or 御門, literally means "the honorable gate", once used in the Mikado, a 19th century operetta, but this term is now obsolete.

Traditionally, the Japanese consider it disrespectful to call any person on his behalf, and especially for a man of noble rank. This Convention is only slightly relaxed in the modern era and it is still impractical, among friends, to use the name, use the name of the family a common form of address. In the case of the Imperial family, it is considered extremely inappropriate to use this name. Since Emperor Meiji, it was decided to have one age for the Emperor and to rename each Emperor after his death using the name of the era over which he presided. Before the Meiji Emperor, the names of the eras were more often changed, and the posthumous names of the emperors were chosen in different ways.

Hirohito, usually called in English outside of Japan, never mentioned his name in Japan. He was given the posthumous name Showa tennō after his death, it is the only name that Japanese currently use when referring to him.

The current Emperor on the throne, usually referred to as tennō Heika 天皇陛下, "His Imperial Majesty the Emperor"), Kinjō Heika 今上陛下, "his current Majesty" or simply tennō when speaking Japanese. Emperor Akihito received the title Daijō tennō 太上天皇, the Emperor retired, often shortened as Jōkō 上皇, after his abdication on 30 April 2019, and is expected to be renamed Heisei tennō 平成天皇 after his death, and will then be referred to exclusively by that name in Japanese. In Japanese culture it is considered a major faux pas to refer to a living Emperor by the name of era, since only after his death, when his name posthumous name.


3.1. Addressing and naming. The origin of the name. (Происхождение названия)

Originally the ruler of Japan was known as 大和大王 / Yamato-ōkimi 大君, the Great King of Yamato, 倭王 / 倭国王 or 治天下大王 in Japanese and Chinese sources prior to the 7th century. The oldest documented use of the word "tennō" is on a wooden plank, or mokkan, that was discovered in Asuka-Mura, Nara Prefecture in 1998 and dated back to the reign of Emperor Temmu and Empress Jitō.


4. Marriage customs. (Брачные обычаи)

Throughout history, Japanese emperors and noblemen appointed the chief wife, not just keeping a harem or an assortment of female attendants.

The Japanese Imperial dynasty is constantly practiced official polygamy, only ended in the Taisho period 1912-1926. Besides the Empress, the Emperor could take, and almost always took several secondary wives "mistresses" of various hierarchical degrees. Concubines were allowed, and other Shinnōke rulers, Ōke. After the Emperors decree modoribashi said to the assistant, some emperors, two empresses simultaneously kōgō and chūgū are two separate titles for that situation. With the help of all this polygamy, the Imperial clan was able to produce more offspring.

Of the eight women of the reigning empresses of Japan, never married or gave birth after ascending the throne. Some of them, being widows, had produced children before their reigns.

In succession, the children of the Empress was preferable to the sons of secondary wives. Thus, it is important that the premises had preferential opportunities in providing chief wives to Imperial princes, i.e. the delivery of future empresses.

Apparently, an ancient tradition of official marriages within the Imperial dynasty were marriages between dynasty members, even half-siblings or uncle and niece. Such marriages have been recognized to preserve the Imperial blood or were aimed at getting the children a symbol of reconciliation between the two branches of the Imperial dynasty. Daughter others remained concubines, until Emperor 701-706 to this - what exactly is reported as the first elevation of its kind - raised his Fujiwara consort Empress Kōmyō to the main wife.

Japanese monarchs, like others, depends on alliances with powerful chiefs and other monarchs. Many such alliances were sealed with marriages. Feature of Japan is that these marriages were only included as elements of tradition, which controlled the marriages of subsequent generations, although the initial practical Alliance has lost its true meaning. A recurring pattern was the Imperial son-in-law under the powerful influence of his Imperial father-in-law.

Starting with the 7th and 8th centuries, emperors primarily by women of the Fujiwara clan as their highest wives the most probable mothers of future monarchs. It was cloaked as a tradition of marriage between heirs of two kami, a Shinto deity: descendants of Amaterasu with descendants of the family kami of the Fujiwara. To produce Imperial children, heirs of the nation, with the two sides the descent from the two Kamis, is considered desirable or, at least it suited powerful Fujiwara of the Gods, who thus received preference in the Imperial marriage market. The reality underlying such marriages is a Union between the Imperial Prince and a Fujiwara Lord, his father-in-law or grandfather, the latter with his resources supporting the Prince to the throne and most often controlling the government. These arrangements created the tradition of Regents Sesshō and Kampaku, with these positions is only Fujiwara sekke Lord.

Earlier, the emperors had married women from families of the government-holding Soga lords, and women of the Imperial clan itself, i.e. various-degree cousins and often even their own sisters half-sisters. Several Imperials of the 5th and 6th centuries such as Prince Shotoku were the children of half-sibling pairs. These marriages often Alliance or succession devices: the Soga Lord ensured his domination of the Prince who would sit on the throne as a puppet, or a Prince ensured the combination of two Imperial descents, to strengthen his own and his childrens rights to the throne. Marriages are also a means to seal a reconciliation between two Imperial branches.

After a couple of centuries, emperors could no longer take anyone from such families as the primary wife, no matter what the expediency of such a marriage and power or wealth that could be. Only very rarely does the Prince ascend the throne, whose mothers are not derived from approved families. Previously, the necessity and expediency mutated into a strict tradition that does not allow current expediency or necessity, and dictated only that daughters are a limited number of families entitled to brides, because they produced an enviable brides for centuries. Tradition is stronger than law.

Fujiwara women were often empresses, concubines came from less exalted noble family. For the last thousand years, sons of an Imperial male and a Fujiwara woman have been preferred in the inheritance.

Five families of Fujiwara, modoribashi said that the assistant, Kujō, Nijo, Konoe, and Takatsukasa, were the primary source of Imperial brides from the 8th century to the 19th century, even more often than daughters of the Imperial clan. Thus, the daughter of Fujiwara were ordinary, Empress and mother of emperors.

This restriction on brides for the Emperor and the crown Prince was clearly stated in Meiji-era Imperial house, 1889. Provision was made that daughters of Sekke five main branches of the higher Fujiwara and daughters of the Imperial clan was primarily acceptable brides.

The law was repealed after the Second world war. Now-honorary Emperor Akihito became the first crown Prince for over a thousand years to marry a wife because of previously committed circle.


5. The Three Sacred Treasures. (Три Священных Сокровища)

In Japanese mythology, the sacred treasure was awarded to Ninigi-no-Mikoto, the grandson of the goddess Amaterasu, in the advent of Tenson kōrin. Amaterasu sent him to pacify Japan by bringing the three celestial gifts used by the Emperor. The account of Ninigi being sent to earth will appear in the Nihon Shoki. Three sacred treasures were inherited by successive Japanese emperors, which are the same as or similar to the sacred treasure in mythology. These three gifts signify that the Emperor is the descendant of Amaterasu herself. Three sacred treasures:

  • Yasakani no Magatama → blessed are the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.
  • Kusanagi → worshipped at Atsuta Shrine.
  • YATA no Kagami → the inner sanctuary of ISE Jingu Shrine.

During the succession ceremony Senso, 践祚 to have a jewel Yasakani no Magatama with the sword Kusanagi and the mirror YATA no Kagami are evidence of the legal service of the Emperor.


6. Succession. (Правопреемство)

The origins of the Japanese Imperial dynasty is unclear, and he bases his position on the statement that she "reigned since time immemorial". There are no records of any Emperor who was not a descendant of the other, even before Emperor 万世一系 bansei ikkei. There is suspicion that Emperor Keitai p. 500 BC, May have been related to outsider, though the sources of Kojiki, the Nihon Shoki, he was a male line descendant of Emperor Ōjin. However, his descendants, including his heirs, according to records descended from at least one and probably several Imperial princesses of the older kind. The tradition built by those legends has chosen to recognize just the putative male ancestry as valid for legitimizing his succession, not giving any weight to ties through the princesses.

Thousands of years ago the Japanese Imperial family developed its own peculiar system of inheritance. He was not primogenitural, more or less male, based mostly on rotation. Today, Japan uses strict male primogeniture, which was borrowed from Prussia, in which Japan was greatly influenced in the 1870s years.

Management principles and their interaction were apparently very complex and sophisticated, leading to more idiosyncratic results. Some of the main principles apparent in the succession have been:

  • Adoption was possible and often used way to increase the number of succession-entitled heirs, however, the adopted child must be a child of another close member of the Imperial House.
  • The abdication was very often, and in fact occurred more often than death on the throne. In those days, emperors main task was priestly or godly, containing so many repetitive rituals that it was deemed that after a service of about ten years, the incumbent deserved pampered retirement as an honored former Emperor.
  • Women were allowed to succeed. However, the entry of women much less than men.
  • Primogeniture was not used – and, in the first days, the Imperial house practised something resembling a system of rotation. Very often a brother or sister followed the elder brother, even in the case of the predecessor leaving children. In the "turn" of the next generation came more often after a few of the older generation. Rotation went often between two or more branches of the Imperial house, thus more or less distant relatives succeeded each other. Emperor Go-Saga even decreed an official alternation between heirs of his two sons, who continued for a couple of centuries, leading finally to shogun-induced or to use the strife between these two branches, "southern" and "Northern" emperors). To the end, the alternates were very distant cousins counted in degrees of male descent. Over the last five hundred years, however, probably due to Confucian influence, inheritance sons – but not always or even often the eldest son was the norm.

Historically, succession to the Chrysanthemum throne has always passed to descendants in the male line from the Imperial line. As a rule, they were men, though during the reign of a hundred monarchs were nine women, one prehistoric and historic as the Emperor eight eleven times.

More than a thousand years ago, and the tradition began that the Emperor should ascend relatively young. In the khanate who had passed his toddler years was regarded suitable and old enough. The age of majority is not a requirement. Thus many Japanese emperors have ascended as children, as young as 6 or 8 years. High-priestly duties were deemed possible for a walking child. Protsarstvovav about ten years was considered sufficient service. Being a child was apparently a fine property, to better endure tedious duties and to tolerate subjugation to political power-brokers, and sometimes the cloak is a truly powerful members of the Imperial dynasty. Almost all Japanese empresses and dozens of abdicated emperors and lived the rest of your life to bask retirement, wielding influence behind the scenes. Several emperors abdicated to their entitled retirement while still in his Teens. These traditions show in Japanese folklore, theater, literature and other forms of culture where the Emperor is usually described or depicted as a teenager.

Before the Meiji restoration, Japan had eleven reigning empresses reign, their daughters in the male line of the Imperial House. None ascended purely as a wife or widow of an Emperor. Imperial daughters and granddaughters, however, as a rule, ascended the throne as a kind of "stop-gap" measure – if any male was not available or some Imperial branches in the rivalry, so compromise is needed. More than half of Japanese empresses and many emperors abdicated once any descendant of a male is considered old enough to rule by just walking in some cases. Four empresses, Empress Suiko, Empress Kōgyoku Empress Saimei also, and Empress Jitō, as well as the mythical Empress Jingu, were widows of deceased emperors and princesses of the blood Imperial in their own right. One, the Empress Genmei was the widow of the crown Prince and Princess of the Imperial blood. The other four, Empress Genshō, Empress Kōken also the Empress Shotoku, Empress Meishō, and Empress go-Sakuramachi, married the daughters of previous emperors. None of these empresses married or gave birth after ascending the throne.

Article 2 of the Constitution the Meiji Constitution of the Empire of Japan declared that "the Imperial throne will be able to by Imperial male descendants, in accordance with the provisions of the law on the Imperial family." In 1889 the Imperial law of consumer fixed sequence on the male descendants of the Royal line, and in particular, excluded female descendants from the succession. In the event of total failure of the main line, the throne would pass to the nearest collateral branch, again in the male line. If the Empress gave birth to an heir, the Emperor could take a concubine, and the son of his concubine that will be recognized as the heir to the throne. This law, which was adopted on the same day as the Meiji Constitution, enjoyed equal status with that Constitution.

Article 2 of the Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947 under the influence of the American occupation administration, provides that "the Imperial throne shall be dynastic and succeeded to in accordance with Imperial house law, household, adopted by Parliament". The Imperial law of the consumer, 1947, adopted at the ninety-second and last session of the Imperial diet, retained the exclusion of women rulers found in the 1889 law. The government of Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru hastily cobbled together the legislation to bring the Imperial house in compliance with the American-written Japanese Constitution, which came into force in may 1947. In the quest to control the size of the Imperial family, the law stipulates that only legitimate male descendants in the male line can be rulers that Imperial princesses lose their status of Imperial family members if they marry outside the Imperial family and the Emperor and other members of the Imperial family may not adopt children. In addition, the branches, except the branch coming down from Taisho, from the Imperial princes more.


6.1. Succession. Current status. (Текущее состояние)

Succession is governed by laws enacted by the national Parliament. The current law excludes women from the succession. Changes in the law were considered until Princess Kiko gave birth to a son.

Before the birth of Prince Hisahito, son of Prince Akishino, 6 September 2006, there was a potential succession problem, since Prince Akishino was the only male child to be born in the Imperial family since 1965. After the birth of Princess Aiko, there was public debate about amending the current Imperial law of the consumer to allow women to inherit the throne. In January 2005 Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi appointed a special Commission composed of judges, University professors and civil servants to study changes to the law of the Emperors household and to make recommendations to the government.

The panel addressing the problem of continuity it is recommended that on 25 October 2005, amending the law to allow women the male line of Imperial descent to ascend to the Japanese throne. On 20 January 2006, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi devoted part of his annual keynote speech on the dispute, promising to introduce a bill allowing women to ascend the throne to ensure the succession continues in the future on a permanent basis. Shortly after the announcement that Princess Kiko is pregnant with her third child, Koizumi suspended these plans. Her son, Prince Hisahito, is third in line to the throne under the current law of succession. On 3 January 2007, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced that he will drop to the proposal to change the Imperial law of the family.

Another proposed plan will allow single men from abolished collateral branches of the Imperial family to be reunited through adoption or marriage. It will be an emergency measure to ensure a stable succession. He is not to revise the Imperial laws family. This is not a restoration of royalty 11 collateral branches of the Imperial house, which was cancelled in October 1947.


7. Burial traditions. (Традиции погребения)

In the Kofun period, so-called "archaic funerals" were held for deceased emperors, but known only to the funerary rituals from the end of the period in which the Chronicles describe in more detail. They were centered around the rite of mogari 殯, temporary storage between death and permanent burial.

Empress Jitō was the first Japanese Imperial person to be cremated in 703. After that with few exceptions, all emperors were cremated up to the Edo period. Over the next 350 years, in the burial sites became a popular funeral custom. Until 1912, the emperors were usually buried in Kyoto. From Emperor Taisho forward, emperors were buried at the Musashi Imperial cemetery in Tokyo.

In 2013, the Imperial court announced that the Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko would have to be cremated after death.


8. Wealth. (Богатство)

Until the end of the Second world war, the Japanese monarchy is considered to be one of the richest in the world. Until 1911, makes no distinction between the estates and the Imperial crown of the emperors personal characteristics that were significant. Imperial property law, which entered into force in January 1911, with two categories: Imperial properties or hereditary estates of the crown and personal "normal" properties of the Imperial family. Imperial Minister of consumer was responsible for compliance with any court proceedings against Imperial possessions. In accordance with the provisions of law, the Imperial properties were to be taxed only in those cases where there is no conflict with the Imperial house law existed, however, estates of the crown can only be used for state or royally sanctioned activities. Personal properties of some members of the Imperial family, in addition to properties intended for members of the Imperial family, who were minors, are exempt from taxation. These family members include the Empress Dowager, the Empress, the crown Prince and crown Princess, the Imperial grandson, and the wife of Emperor grandson. As a result of poor economic conditions in Japan, 289.259.25 acres of land about 26% of the total land was either sold or transferred by the state and the private sector in 1921. In 1930, the private Palace of Nagoya, the Nagoya castle was donated to the city of Nagoya, with six other Imperial Villa, or sold or donated at the same time. In 1939, the Nijo castle, the former Kyoto residence of the Tokugawa shoguns and the Imperial Palace after the Meiji Restoration, was also presented to the city of Kyoto.

At the end of 1935, according to official data of the government, the Imperial court belonged to about 3.111.965 acres of landed estates, most of which 2.599.548 acres was the emperors private land with a total area of crown estates in the amount of about 512.161 acres, those land plots within the Palace complexes, forest and agricultural land and other residential and commercial properties. Then the total cost of Imperial properties is estimated at ¥650 million people, or approximately US$195 million at the current exchange rate of the Euro. This was in addition to the emperors personal fortune, which he made hundreds of millions of yen and includes numerous family heirlooms and furniture, purebred cattle, and investments in large Japanese firms, such as the Bank of Japan and other big Japanese banks, the Imperial hotel Nippon Yusen.

After the defeat of Japan in world war II, all the collateral branches of the Imperial family was abolished under the allied occupation of the country and the subsequent constitutional reform, forcing those families to sell their assets in private or government. The number of personnel in the Imperial family was reduced from a peak of about 6000 to about 1000. Then the Imperial estates and of the emperors personal fortune is estimated at 17.15 million$, or approximately 625 million in 2017 dollars were transferred to either public or private property, except 6.810 acres. Since the constitutional reform of 1947, the Imperial family was supported by the civil list sanctioned by the government of Japan. The largest Imperial units were former Imperial Kiso and forestry Amagi in Gifu Prefecture Shizuoka pastures for cattle in Hokkaido, and a cattle farm in Chiba region, all of which was transferred to the Ministry of agriculture, forestry and fisheries. The Imperial property company and were further reduced since 1947 after several submitted to the government. Today, the main Imperial properties include two Imperial palaces in Tokyo and Kyoto, several Imperial villas and a number of Imperial farming and hunting resources.

From 2017, Akihito, Emperor of the previous estimated net worth of 40 million USD. The exact wealth and expenses of the Emperor and the Imperial family remain the subject of speculation, and was largely hidden from public view until 2003, when Yohei Mori, former Royal correspondent of the newspaper "Mainichi Shimbun", got access to 200 documents through the recently held public information law. Insights Maurice, which he published in the book, revealed details of the Imperial family, the civil list us $ 240 million in 2003 values. Among other details, the book revealed the Royal family, hired employees more than 1000 people.

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In Photos: Japans Emperor Naruhito Ascends the Throne Newsweek.

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