ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 98




                                               

Hyperphenylalaninemia

Hyperphenylalaninemia is a medical condition characterized by mildly or strongly elevated concentrations of the amino acid phenylalanine in the blood. Phenylketonuria can result in severe hyperphenylalaninemia. Phenylalanine concentrations are ro ...

                                               

Pickardt syndrome

Pickardt syndrome denotes a rare form of tertiary hypothyroidism that is caused by interruption of the portal veins connecting hypothalamus and pituitary. This was true in 1972 and 1973, Renate Pickardt and Rudolf Fahlbusch.

                                               

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is cancer that develops from the tissues of the thyroid gland. It is a disease in which cells grow abnormally and have the potential to spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms can include swelling or a lump in the neck. Cancer ...

                                               

Antihormone therapy

Antihormone therapy is a type of hormone therapy that suppresses selected hormones or their effects, in contrast with hormone replacement therapy, which encourages hormone activity.

                                               

Dexamethasone suppression test

The dexamethasone suppression test is used to assess adrenal gland function by measuring how cortisol levels change in response to an injection of dexamethasone. It is typically used to diagnose Cushings syndrome. The DST was historically used to ...

                                               

Laser ablation of thyroid nodules

Laser ablation of thyroid nodules is a minimally invasive procedure indicated to treat benign thyroid lesions such as cold nodules or single nodules within a multinodular goiter. The technique consists in the destruction of the tissue by the inse ...

                                               

Neuroendocrinology

Neuroendocrinology is the branch of biology which studies the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, that is how the brain regulates the hormonal activity in the body. The nervous and endocrine systems often act together ...

                                               

Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia

Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia is a diffuse parenchymal lung disease which often presents with symptoms of cough and shortness of breath. The pathological definition published by the World Health Organization is" a g ...

                                               

Median eminence

The median eminence, part of the inferior boundary of the hypothalamus in the brain, is attached to the infundibulum. The median eminence is a small swelling on the tuber cinereum, posterior to and atop the pituitary stalk, it lies in the area ro ...

                                               

Micromegaly

Micromegaly is a term sometimes used to describe a state with abnormal, elevated insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and normal growth hormone levels. In typical acromegaly disease scenario both insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and growth horm ...

                                               

Neuroendocrine differentiation

Neuroendocrine differentiation is a term primarily used in relation to prostate cancers that display a significant neuroendocrine cell population on histopathological examination. These types of prostate cancer comprise true neuroendocrine cancer ...

                                               

Posterior pituitary

The posterior pituitary is the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland which is part of the endocrine system. The posterior pituitary is not glandular as is the anterior pituitary. Instead, it is largely a collection of axonal projections from the ...

                                               

Rathkes cleft cyst

A Rathkes cleft cyst is a benign growth on the pituitary gland in the brain, specifically a mucin-filled cyst in the posterior portion of the anterior pituitary gland. It occurs when the Rathkes pouch does not develop properly and ranges in size ...

                                               

Small intestine neuroendocrine tumor

A small intestine neuroendocrine tumor is a carcinoid in the distal small intestine or the proximal large intestine. It is a relatively rare cancer and is diagnosed in approximately 1/100000 people every year. In recent decades the incidence has ...

                                               

Supraoptic nucleus

The supraoptic nucleus is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain. The nucleus is situated at the base of the brain, adjacent to the optic chiasm. In humans, the SON contains about 3.000 neurons.

                                               

Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus

The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. "The ventromedial hypothalamus is a distinct morphological nucleus involved in terminating hunger, fear, thermoregulation, and sexual activity." This nuclear region is ...

                                               

Colorectal surgery

Colorectal surgery is a field in medicine dealing with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon. The field is also known as proctology, but this term is now used infrequently within medicine and is most often employed to identify practices relati ...

                                               

Anismus

Anismus is the failure of normal relaxation of pelvic floor muscles during attempted defecation. It can occur in both children and adults, and in both men and women. It can be caused by physical defects or it can occur for other reasons or unknow ...

                                               

Defecography

Defecography is a type of medical radiological imaging in which the mechanics of a patients defecation are visualized in real time using a fluoroscope. The anatomy and function of the anorectum and pelvic floor can be dynamically studied at vario ...

                                               

LIFT technique

LIFT technique is the novel modified approach through the intersphincteric plane for the treatment of fistula-in-ano, known as LIFT procedure. LIFT procedure is based on secure closure of the internal opening and removal of infected cryptoglandul ...

                                               

Proctoscopy

Proctoscopy is a common medical procedure in which an instrument called a proctoscope is used to examine the anal cavity, rectum, or sigmoid colon. A proctoscope is a short, straight, rigid, hollow metal tube, and usually has a small light bulb m ...

                                               

Rectal prolapse

Rectal prolapse is when the rectal walls have prolapsed to a degree where they protrude out the anus and are visible outside the body. However, most researchers agree that there are 3 to 5 different types of rectal prolapse, depending on if the p ...

                                               

Stapled hemorrhoidopexy

Stapled hemorrhoidopexy, is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of abnormally enlarged hemorrhoidal tissue, followed by the repositioning of the remaining hemorrhoidal tissue back to its normal anatomic position. Severe cases of hemorr ...

                                               

Alkaline mucus

Mucus that serves a protective function against acidic environments generally has a high viscosity, though the thickness and viscosity of the mucus layer can vary due to several factors. For example, alkaline mucus in the stomach increases in thi ...

                                               

Anal canal

The canal is the terminal segment of the large intestine between the rectum and anus, located below the level of the pelvic diaphragm. It is located within the anal triangle of perineum, between the right and left ischioanal fossa. As the final f ...

                                               

Myenteric plexus

The myenteric plexus provides motor innervation to both layers of the muscular layer of the gut, having both parasympathetic and sympathetic input, whereas the submucous plexus has only parasympathetic fibers and provides secretomotor innervation ...

                                               

Brunners glands

Brunners glands are compound tubular submucosal glands found in that portion of the duodenum which is above the hepatopancreatic sphincter. The main function of these glands is to produce a mucus-rich alkaline secretion i.e. mucous in order to: P ...

                                               

Cephalic phase

The cephalic phase of digestion is the gastric secretion that occurs even before food enters the oral cavity. It results from the visual, olfactory, and auditory inputs to the brain induce anticipatory responses to prepare the gastrointestinal tr ...

                                               

Digestive system of gastropods

The digestive system of gastropods has evolved to suit almost every kind of diet and feeding behavior. Gastropods as the largest taxonomic class of the mollusca are very diverse indeed: the group includes carnivores, herbivores, scavengers, filte ...

                                               

Digestive system of humpback whales

The digestive system of humpback whales is adapted to digest tiny crustaceans such as krill, plankton, and small fish which the whale filters from the ocean using its baleen, a sieve-like structure in the upper jaw. Humpback whales belong to the ...

                                               

Duodenal bulb

The duodenal bulb is the portion of the duodenum closest to the stomach. It normally has a length of about 5 centimeters. The duodenal bulb begins at the pylorus and ends at the neck of the gallbladder. It is located posterior to the liver and th ...

                                               

Duodenum

The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear, and the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine ma ...

                                               

Enterocyte

Enterocytes, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells which line the inner surface of the small and large intestines. A glycocalyx surface coat contains digestive enzymes. Microvilli on the apical surface increase its ...

                                               

Epiglottis

The epiglottis is a leaf-shaped flap in the throat that prevents food from entering the windpipe and the lungs. It stands open during breathing, allowing air into the larynx. During swallowing, it closes to prevent aspiration of food into the lun ...

                                               

Esophageal spasm

Esophageal spasm is a disorder of motility of the esophagus. There are two types of esophageal spasm: Diffuse or distal esophageal spasm DES, where there is uncoordinated esophageal contractions. Nutcracker esophagus NE also known as hypertensive ...

                                               

Gastric mucosal barrier

The gastric mucosal barrier is the property of the stomach that allows it to safely contain the gastric acid required for digestion. If the barrier is breached, as acetylsalicylic acid ASA, aspirin in acid solution, acid diffuses back into the mu ...

                                               

Gastric shield

A gastric shield is an organ in the digestive tract of bivalves, tusk shells, and some gastropods against which a crystalline style typically rotates, in an action resembling that of a mortar and pestle. The gastric shield is permeated by microca ...

                                               

Haptocorrin

Haptocorrin also known as transcobalamin-1 or cobalophilin is a transcobalamin protein that in humans is encoded by the TCN1 gene. The essential function of haptocorrin is protection of the acid-sensitive vitamin B 12 while it moves through the s ...

                                               

Human anus

The human anus is the external opening of the rectum. Two sphincters control the exit of feces from the body during an act of defecation, which is the primary function of the anus. These are the internal anal sphincter and the external anal sphin ...

                                               

Ileocecal valve

The ileocecal valve is a sphincter muscle valve that separates the small intestine and the large intestine. Its critical function is to limit the reflux of colonic contents into the ileum. Approximately two liters of fluid enters the colon daily ...

                                               

Ileum

The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear and the terms posterior intestine or distal intestine may be ...

                                               

Ileus

Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the intestine due to the malfunction of peristalsis. Ileus originally referred to any lack of digestive engines, including intestinal obstruction, but current medical usage restricts its m ...

                                               

Inflammatory fibroid polyp

IFPs consist of spindle cells that are concentrically arranged around blood vessels and have inflammation, especially eosinophils. They may have leiomyoma/schwannoma-like areas with nuclear palisading. They typically stain with CD34 and vimentin, ...

                                               

Interstitial cell of Cajal

The interstitial cell of Cajal is a type of interstitial cell found in the gastrointestinal tract. There are different types with different functions. Myenteric Interstitial cells of Cajal serve as a pacemaker which creates the bioelectrical slow ...

                                               

Intestinal gland

In histology, an intestinal gland is a gland found in between villi in the intestinal epithelium lining of the small intestine and large intestine. The glands and intestinal villi are covered by epithelium, which contains multiple types of cells: ...

                                               

Intestinal mucosal barrier

The intestinal mucosal barrier, also referred to as intestinal barrier, refers to the property of the intestinal mucosa that ensures adequate containment of undesirable luminal contents within the intestine while preserving the ability to absorb ...

                                               

Intestinal permeability

Intestinal permeability is a term describing the control of material passing from inside the gastrointestinal tract through the cells lining the gut wall, into the rest of the body. The intestine normally exhibits some permeability, which allows ...

                                               

Intestinal villus

Intestinal villi are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine. Each villus is approximately 0.5–1.6 mm in length, and has many microvilli projecting from the enterocytes of its epithelium which collectively ...

                                               

Intraepithelial lymphocyte

Intraepithelial lymphocytes are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal tract and reproductive tract. However, unlike other T cells, IELs do not need priming. Upon encountering antigens ...

                                               

Jejunum

The jejunum is the second part of the small intestine in humans and most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. Its lining is specialized for the absorption by enterocytes of small nutrient molecules which have been previousl ...