ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 97




                                               

Adaptive immunity in jawless fish

Jawless vertebrates, which today consist entirely of lampreys and hagfish, have an adaptive immune system similar to that found in jawed vertebrates. The cells of the agnathan AIS have roles roughly equivalent to those of B-cells and T-cells, wit ...

                                               

Antibody opsonization

Antibody opsonization is the process by which the pathogen is marked for ingestion and eliminated by the phagocytes. Given the normal inflammatory circumstances, microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns pamps associated with the endocytic ...

                                               

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, also referred to as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, is a mechanism of cell-mediated immune defense whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell, whose membrane ...

                                               

Antibody-dependent enhancement

Antibody-dependent enhancement occurs when non-neutralizing antiviral proteins facilitate virus entry into host cells, leading to increased infectivity in the cells. Some cells do not have the usual receptors on their surfaces that viruses use to ...

                                               

Antigen processing

Antigen processing, or the cytosolic pathway, is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes. It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways. This pr ...

                                               

CD74

HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD74 gene. The invariant chain is a polypeptide involved in the formation and tran ...

                                               

CD94/NKG2

CD94/NKG2 is a family of C-type lectin receptors which are expressed predominantly on the surface of NK cells and a subset of CD8 + T-lymphocyte. These receptors stimulate or inhibit cytotoxic activity of NK cells, therefore they are divided into ...

                                               

CLIP (protein)

CLIP or Class II-associated invariant chain peptide is the part of the invariant chain that binds MHC class II groove and remains there until the MHC receptor is fully assembled. The purpose of CLIP is to prevent the binding of self-peptide fragm ...

                                               

Common gamma chain

The common gamma chain, also known as interleukin-2 receptor subunit gamma or IL-2RG, is a cytokine receptor sub-unit that is common to the receptor complexes for at least six different interleukin receptors: IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and int ...

                                               

Complement system

The complement system, also known as complement cascade, is a part of the immune system that enhances the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promote inflammation, and attack the pathog ...

                                               

CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide

CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are short single-stranded synthetic DNA molecules that contain a cytosine triphosphate deoxynucleotide followed by a guanine triphosphate deoxynucleotide. The "p" refers to the phosphodiester link between consecutive nuc ...

                                               

Gluten immunochemistry

The immunochemistry of Triticeae glutens is important in several inflammatory diseases. It can be subdivided into innate responses, class II mediated presentation, class I meditiated stimulation of killer cells, and antibody recognition. The resp ...

                                               

Hapten

Haptens are relatively small molecules that elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein, the carrier may be one that also does not elicit an immune response by itself. Once the body has generated antibodies t ...

                                               

Histocompatibility

Histocompatibility, or tissue compatibility, is the property of having the same, or sufficiently similar, alleles of a set of genes called human leukocyte antigens, or major histocompatibility complex. Each individual expresses many unique HLA pr ...

                                               

Idiotype

In immunology, an idiotype is a shared characteristic between a group of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor molecules based upon the antigen binding specificity and therefore structure of their variable region. The variable region of antigen recep ...

                                               

Immune checkpoint

Immune checkpoints are regulators of the immune system. These pathways are crucial for self-tolerance, which prevents the immune system from attacking cells indiscriminately. However, some cancers can protect themselves from attack by stimulating ...

                                               

Immune receptor

An immune receptor is a receptor, usually on a cell membrane, which binds to a substance and causes a response in the immune system.

                                               

Immunoglobulin heavy chain

The immunoglobulin heavy chain is the large polypeptide subunit of an antibody. In human genome, the IgH gene loci are on chromosome 14. A typical antibody consists of two heavy immunoglobulin chains and two IG light chains iG. There are several ...

                                               

Immunoglobulin light chain

The immunoglobulin light chain is the small polypeptide subunit of an antibody. A typical antibody consists of two heavy immunoglobulin chains and two IG light chains iG.

                                               

Immunological memory

Immunological memory is the ability of the immune system to quickly and specifically recognize an antigen that the body has previously encountered and initiate a corresponding immune response. Generally these are secondary, tertiary and other sub ...

                                               

Immunological synapse

In immunology, an immunological synapse is the interface between an antigen-presenting cell or target cell and a lymphocyte such as a T/B cell or Natural Killer cell. The interface was originally named after the neuronal synapse, with which it sh ...

                                               

Immunosignature

Immunosignaturing is a medical diagnostic test which uses arrays of random-sequence peptides to associate antibodies in a blood sample with a disease.

                                               

Indoleamine 2.3-dioxygenase

Indoleamine-pyrrole 2.3-dioxygenase is a heme-containing enzyme physiologically expressed in a number of tissues and cells, such as the small intestine, lungs, female genital tract or placenta. In humans is encoded by the IDO1 gene. IDO is involv ...

                                               

Innate immune system

The innate immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates. The innate immune system is an older evolutionary defense strategy, relatively speaking, and it is the dominant immune system response found in plants, fung ...

                                               

Innate lymphoid cell

Innate lymphoid cells are a group of innate immune cells that are derived from common lymphoid progenitors and belong to the lymphoid lineage. These cells are defined by absence of antigen specific B or T cell receptor because of the lack of reco ...

                                               

Intracellular antibody-mediated degradation

Intracellular antibody-mediated degradation is a neutralization mechanism of intracellular antibody-mediated immunity whereby an effector protein, TRIM21, directs antibody bound virions to the proteasome where they are degraded. As yet, it has on ...

                                               

IRGs

Immunity Related Guanosine Triphosphatases or IRGs are proteins activated as part of an early immune response. IRGs have been described in various mammals but are most well characterized in mice. IRG activation in most cases is induced by an immu ...

                                               

Junctional diversity

Junctional diversity describes the DNA sequence variations introduced by the improper joining of gene segments during the process of VJ recombination. This process of VJ recombination has vital roles for the vertebrate immune system, as it is abl ...

                                               

LANA

The latency-associated nuclear antigen or latent nuclear antigen, is a Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent protein initially found by Moore and colleagues as a speckled nuclear antigen present in primary effusion lymphoma cells that rea ...

                                               

Linear epitope

A linear or a sequential epitope is an epitope that is recognized by antibodies by its linear sequence of amino acids, or primary structure. In contrast, most antibodies recognize a conformational epitope that has a specific three-dimensional sha ...

                                               

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor, also known as glycosylation-inhibiting factor, L-dopachrome isomerase, or phenylpyruvate tautomerase is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MIF gene. MIF is an important regulator of innate immunity. ...

                                               

MHC restriction

MHC-restricted antigen recognition, or MHC restriction, refers to the fact that a T cell can interact with a self-major histocompatibility complex molecule and a foreign peptide bound to it, but will only respond to the antigen when it is bound t ...

                                               

Microbial symbiosis and immunity

Long-term close-knit interactions between symbiotic microbes and their host can alter host immune system responses to other microorganisms, including pathogens, and are required to maintain proper homeostasis. The immune system is a host defense ...

                                               

Minor histocompatibility antigen

Minor histocompatibility antigen are receptors on the cellular surface of donated organs that are known to give an immunological response in some organ transplants. They cause problems of rejection less frequently than those of the major histocom ...

                                               

Mononuclear phagocyte system

In immunology, the mononuclear phagocyte system or mononuclear phagocytic system is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue. The cells are primarily monocytes and macrophages, and t ...

                                               

Nasal-associated lymphoid tissue

Nasal- or nasopharynx- associated lymphoid tissue represents immune system of nasal mucosa and is a part of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in mammals. It protects body from airborne viruses and other infectious agents. In humans, NALT is consi ...

                                               

Neuroimmune system

The neuroimmune system is a system of structures and processes involving the biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the nervous system and immune system which protect neurons from pathogens. It serves to protect neurons against ...

                                               

Non-peptidic antigen

Non-peptidic antigens are low-molecular-weight compounds that stimulate human Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells. The most potent activator for Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells is -4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate, a natural intermediate of the non-mevalonate pathway of ...

                                               

Nonspecific immune cell

A non-specific immune cell is an immune cell that responds to many antigens, not just one antigen. Non-specific immune cells function in the first line of defense against infection or injury. The innate immune system is always present at the site ...

                                               

Nuocyte

The nuocyte is a cell of the innate immune system that plays an important role in type 2 immune responses that are induced in response to helminth worm infection or in conditions such as asthma and atopic disease. Nuocytes are amongst the first c ...

                                               

Opsonin

An opsonin is any molecule that enhances phagocytosis by marking an antigen for an immune response or marking dead cells for recycling. Opson in ancient Greece referred to the delicious side-dish of any meal, versus the sitos, or the staple of th ...

                                               

P110δ

Phosphatidylinositol-4.5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoform also known as phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta isoform or p110δ is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PIK3CD gene. p110δ regulates immune function. In contrast ...

                                               

Panel-reactive antibody

A panel-reactive antibody is a group of antibodies in a test serum that are reactive against any of several known specific antigens in a panel of test cells or purified HLA antigens from cells. It is an immunologic test routinely performed by cli ...

                                               

Pathogen-associated molecular pattern

These molecules can be referred to as small molecular motifs conserved within a class of microbes. They are recognized by toll-like receptors and other pattern recognition receptors in both plants and animals. A vast array of different types of m ...

                                               

Phagocyte

Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells. Their name comes from the Greek phagein, "to eat" or "devour", and "-cyte", the suffix in biology denoting "cell", from the Gree ...

                                               

Programmed cell death protein 1

Programmed cell death protein 1, also known as PD-1 and CD279, is a protein on the surface of cells that has a role in regulating the immune systems response to the cells of the human body by down-regulating the immune system and promoting self-t ...

                                               

Recombination signal sequences

Recombination signal sequences are conserved sequences of noncoding DNA that are recognized by the RAG1/RAG2 enzyme complex during VJ recombination in immature B cells and T cells. Recombination signal sequences guide the enzyme complex to the V, ...

                                               

Recombination-activating gene

The recombination-activating genes encode parts of a protein complex that plays important roles in the rearrangement and recombination of the genes encoding immunoglobulin and T cell receptor molecules. There are two recombination-activating gene ...

                                               

Regulatory macrophages

Regulatory macrophages represent one of basic macrophage population according fundamental macrophage function. These functions are host defense, wound healing and immune regulation. Physiological role of Mregs is to dampen the immune response and ...

                                               

Serum amyloid A

Serum amyloid A proteins are a family of apolipoproteins associated with high-density lipoprotein in plasma. Different isoforms of SAA are expressed constitutively at different levels or in response to inflammatory stimuli. These proteins are pro ...