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Ocular hypertension

Ocular hypertension is the presence of elevated fluid pressure inside the eye, usually with no optic nerve damage or visual field loss. For most people, the normal values of intraocular pressure of 10 mm Hg. article to 21 mm Hg. Elevated intraocu ...

                                               

Phacolytic glaucoma

Phacolytic glaucoma is a form of glaucoma which is caused due to a leaking mature or immature cataract. Inflammatory glaucoma which occurs in phacolysis is a condition which is a result of the leakage of protein within the lens into the capsule o ...

                                               

Hyphema

Hyphema is blood in the front chamber of the eye. It may appear as a reddish tinge, or it may appear as a small pool of blood at the bottom of the iris or in the cornea.

                                               

Intermediate uveitis

Intermediate uveitis is a form of uveitis localized to the vitreous and peripheral retina. Primary sites of inflammation include the vitreous of which other such entities as pars planitis, posterior cyclitis, and hyalitis are encompassed. Interme ...

                                               

Iridodialysis

Those with small iridodialyses may be asymptomatic and require no treatment, but those with larger dialyses may have corectopia or polycoria and experience monocular diplopia, glare, or photophobia. Iridodialyses often accompany angle recession a ...

                                               

Rubeosis iridis

Rubeosis iridis, is a medical condition of the iris of the eye in which new abnormal blood vessels are found on the surface of the iris.

                                               

Aniseikonia

Aniseikonia is an ocular condition where there is a significant difference in the perceived size of images. It can occur as an overall difference between the two eyes, or as a difference in a particular meridian.

                                               

Anisometropia

Anisometropia is when two eyes have unequal refractive power. Generally a difference in power of two diopters or more is the accepted threshold to label the condition anisometropia. In some types of anisometropia, the visual cortex of the brain t ...

                                               

Congenital fourth nerve palsy

Congenital fourth nerve palsy is a condition present at birth characterized by a vertical misalignment of the eyes due to a weakness or paralysis of the superior oblique muscle. For acquired fourth nerve palsy, see fourth nerve palsy. Other names ...

                                               

Cycloplegia

Cycloplegia is paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye, resulting in a loss of accommodation. Because of the paralysis of the ciliary muscle, the curvature of the lens can no longer be adjusted to focus on nearby objects. This results in simil ...

                                               

Cyclotropia

Cyclotropia is a form of strabismus in which, compared to the correct positioning of the eyes, there is a torsion of one eye about the eyes visual axis. Consequently, the visual fields of the two eyes appear tilted relative to each other. The cor ...

                                               

Esophoria

Causes include: Refractive errors. (Аномалии рефракции) Divergence insufficiency. (Недостаточность дивергенции) Convergence excess, this can be due to nerve, muscle, congenital or mechanical anomalies. Unlike esotropia, fusion is possible and the ...

                                               

Esotropia

Esotropia is a form of strabismus in which one or both eyes turns inward. The condition can be constantly present, or occur intermittently, and can give the affected individual a "cross-eyed" appearance. It is the opposite of exotropia and usuall ...

                                               

Exotropia

Exotropia is a form of strabismus where the eyes are deviated outward. It is the opposite of esotropia and usually involves more severe axis deviation than exophoria. People with exotropia often experience crossed diplopia. Intermittent exotropia ...

                                               

Far-sightedness

Far-sightedness, also known as hypermetropia, is a condition of the eye in which light is focused behind, instead of on, the retina. This results in close objects appearing blurry, while far objects may appear normal. As the condition worsens, ob ...

                                               

Fourth nerve palsy

Fourth cranial nerve palsy, is a condition affecting cranial nerve 4, the trochlear nerve, which is one of the cranial nerves. It causes weakness or paralysis of the superior oblique muscle that it innervates. This condition often causes vertical ...

                                               

Heterophoria

Heterophoria is an eye condition in which the directions that the eyes are pointing at rest position, when not performing binocular fusion, are not the same as each other, or, "not straight". This condition can be esophoria, where the eyes tend t ...

                                               

Hypertropia

Hypertropia is a condition of misalignment of the eyes, whereby the visual axis of one eye is higher than the fellow fixating eye. Hypotropia is the similar condition, focus being on the eye with the visual axis lower than the fellow fixating eye ...

                                               

Internuclear ophthalmoplegia

Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is a disorder of conjugate lateral gaze in which the affected eye shows impairment of adduction. When an attempt is made to gaze contralaterally, the affected eye adducts minimally, if at all. The contralateral eye ab ...

                                               

Ophthalmoparesis

Ophthalmoparesis refers to weakness or paralysis of one or more extraocular muscles which are responsible for eye movements. It is a physical finding in certain neurologic, ophthalmologic, and endocrine disease. Internal ophthalmoplegia means inv ...

                                               

Sixth nerve palsy

Sixth nerve palsy, or abducens nerve palsy, is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI, which is responsible for causing contraction of the lateral rectus muscle to abduct the eye. The inability of an eye to turn outward and re ...

                                               

Strabismus

Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be present occasionally or constantly. If present during a large pa ...

                                               

Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is a medical condition involving loss of vision caused by damage to the optic nerve as a result of insufficient blood supply. This form of ischemic optic neuropathy is generally categorized as two types: arterit ...

                                               

Kjers optic neuropathy

Dominant optic atrophy, or dominant optic atrophy, Kjers type, is an autosomally inherited disease that affects the optic nerves, causing reduced visual acuity and blindness beginning in childhood. This condition is due to mitochondrial dysfuncti ...

                                               

Morning glory disc anomaly

The morning glory disc anomaly is a congenital deformity resulting from failure of the optic nerve to completely form in utero. The term was coined in 1970 by Kindler, noting a resemblance of the malformed optic nerve to the morning glory flower. ...

                                               

Optic disc drusen

Optic disc drusen are globules of mucoproteins and mucopolysaccharides that progressively calcify in the optic disc. They are thought to be the remnants of the axonal transport system of degenerated retinal ganglion cells. ODD have also been refe ...

                                               

Papilledema

Papilledema or papilloedema is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure due to any cause. The swelling is usually bilateral and can occur over a period of hours to weeks. Unilateral presentation is extremely rare. In ...

                                               

Toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy

Toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy is a group of medical disorders defined by visual impairment due to optic nerve damage secondary to a toxic substance and/or nutritional deficiency. The causes of these disorders are various, but they are li ...

                                               

Arcus senilis

Arcus senilis is a depositing of phospholipid and cholesterol in the peripheral cornea in patients over the age of 60 which appears as a hazy white, grey, or blue opaque ring. Arcus is common and benign when it is in elderly patients. However, if ...

                                               

Band keratopathy

Band keratopathy is a corneal disease derived from the appearance of calcium on the central cornea. This is an example of metastatic calcification, which by definition, occurs in the presence of hypercalcemia.

                                               

Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy

Congenital hereditary corneal dystrophy is a form of corneal endothelial dystrophy that presents at birth. Chad was previously divided into two subspecies: CHED1 and CHED2. However, in 2015, the international classification of corneal dystrophies ...

                                               

Corneal dystrophy

Corneal dystrophy is a group of rare hereditary disorders characterised by bilateral abnormal deposition of substances in the transparent front part of the eye called the cornea.

                                               

Corneal neovascularization

Corneal neovascularization is the in-growth of new blood vessels from the pericorneal plexus into avascular corneal tissue as a result of oxygen deprivation. Maintaining avascularity of the corneal stroma is an important aspect of corneal pathoph ...

                                               

Epithelial basement membrane dystrophy

Epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, is a disorder of the eye that can cause pain and dryness. It is sometimes included in the group of corneal dystrophy. It differs from the formal definition of corneal dystrophy, currently, in most cases, no ...

                                               

Fleck corneal dystrophy

Fleck corneal dystrophy, also known as Francois-Neetens speckled corneal dystrophy, is a rare form of corneal dystrophy. It is caused by mutations in PIKFYVE gene. Small opacities, some of which resemble "flecks", are scattered in the stroma of t ...

                                               

Fuchs dystrophy

Fuchs dystrophy, also referred to as Fuchs corneal endothelial dystrophy and Fuchs endothelial dystrophy, is a slowly progressing corneal dystrophy that usually affects both eyes and is slightly more common in women than in men. Although early si ...

                                               

Fungal keratitis

A fungal keratitis is an inflammation of the eyes cornea that results from infection by a fungal organism. Keratomycosis is the Greek terminology equivalent of fungal keratitis - it is the fungal infection of the cornea, the anterior part of the ...

                                               

Granular corneal dystrophy

Granular corneal dystrophy is a slowly progressive corneal dystrophy that most often begins in early childhood. Granular corneal dystrophy has two types: Granular corneal dystrophy type I, also corneal dystrophy Groenouw type I, is a rare form of ...

                                               

Lattice corneal dystrophy

Lattice corneal dystrophy type, is a rare form of corneal dystrophy. It has no systemic manifestations, unlike the other type of the dystrophy, Lattice corneal dystrophy type II. Lattice corneal dystrophy was first described by Swiss ophthalmolog ...

                                               

Macular corneal dystrophy

Macular corneal dystrophy, also known as Fehr corneal dystrophy named for German ophthalmologist Oskar Fehr, is a rare pathological condition affecting the stroma of cornea. The first signs are usually noticed in the first decade of life, and pro ...

                                               

Meesmann corneal dystrophy

Meesmann corneal dystrophy is a type of corneal dystrophy and a keratin disease. It is named for German ophthalmologist Alois Meesmann 1888-1969. It is sometimes called "Meesmann-Wilkie syndrome", after a joint contribution of Meesmann and Wilke.

                                               

Corneal ulcer

Corneal ulcer is an inflammatory or, more seriously, infective condition of the cornea involving disruption of its epithelial layer with involvement of the corneal stroma. It is a common condition in humans particularly in the tropics and the agr ...

                                               

Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy

Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy is a type of corneal dystrophy, characterised by changes in Descemets membrane and endothelial layer. Symptoms mainly consist of decreased vision due to corneal edema. In some cases they are present from b ...

                                               

Schnyder crystalline corneal dystrophy

Schnyder crystalline corneal dystrophy is a rare form of corneal dystrophy. It is caused by heterozygous mutations in UBIAD1 gene. Cells in the cornea accumulate cholesterol and phosopholipid deposits leading to the opacity, in severe cases requi ...

                                               

Thiel–Behnke dystrophy

Thiel–Behnke dystrophy, is a rare form of corneal dystrophy affecting the layer that supports corneal epithelium. The dystrophy was first described in 1967 and initially suspected to denote the same entity as the earlier-described Reis-Bucklers d ...

                                               

Thygesons superficial punctate keratopathy

Thygesons superficial punctate keratopathy is a disease of the eyes. The causes of TSPK are not currently known, but details of the disease were first published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1950 by the renowned American O ...

                                               

Amblyopia

Amblyopia, also called lazy eye, is a disorder of sight in which the brain fails to process inputs from one eye and over time favors the other eye. It results in decreased vision in an eye that otherwise typically appears normal. It is the most c ...

                                               

Binocular dysphoria

Binocular Dysphoria is a hypothesized condition where the brain adapts to an alternative way of perceiving depth cues. 3-D films, televisions, virtual reality headsets, and other devices simulate the experience of three dimensions through stereos ...

                                               

Eye strain

Eye strain, also known as asthenopia, is an eye condition that manifests through nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, pain in or around the eyes, blurred vision, headache, and occasional double vision. Symptoms often occur after reading, compute ...

                                               

Hemeralopia

Hemeralopia is the inability to see clearly in bright light and is the exact opposite of nyctalopia, the inability to see clearly in low light. Hemera was the Greek goddess of day, and Nyx was the goddess of night. However, it has been used in an ...