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Subarachnoid cisterns

The subarachnoid cisterns are spaces formed by openings in the subarachnoid space, an anatomic space in the meninges of the brain. The space separates two of the meninges, the arachnoid mater and the pia mater. These cisterns are filled with cere ...

                                               

Tela choroidea

The tela choroidea is a region of meningeal pia mater and underlying ependyma that gives rise to the choroid plexus in each of the brain’s four ventricles. Tela is Latin for woven and is used to describe a web-like membrane or layer. The tela cho ...

                                               

Dynamic response index

The Dynamic Response Index is a measure of the likelihood of spinal damage arising from a vertical shock load such as might be encountered in a military environment. The DRI is a dimensionless number which is proportional to the maximum spinal co ...

                                               

Grey column

The grey column refers to a somewhat ridge-shaped mass of grey matter in the spinal cord. This presents as three columns: the anterior grey column, the posterior grey column, and the lateral grey column in the image to the right), all of which ar ...

                                               

Intermediate horn cell

                                               

Linea splendens

The linea splendens is a band of longitudinal fibers within the spinal pia mater, lying along the surface of the anterior median fissure of the spinal cord and forming a sheath for the anterior spinal artery.

                                               

Myelomere

A myelomere is the segment of spinal cord to which a given pair of dorsal and ventral roots is attached. Because the adult spinal cord does not extend down as far as the vertebral column does, the lower myelomeres are not opposite their correspon ...

                                               

Onufs nucleus

Onufs nucleus is a distinct group of neurons located in the ventral part of the anterior horn of the sacral region of the human spinal cord involved in the maintenance of micturition and defecatory continence, as well as muscular contraction duri ...

                                               

Posterior thoracic nucleus

The posterior thoracic nucleus, is a group of interneurons found in the medial part of lamina VII, also known as the intermediate zone, of the spinal cord. It is mainly located from the cervical vertebra C7 to lumbar L3-L4 levels and is an import ...

                                               

Rexed laminae

The Rexed laminae comprise a system of ten layers of grey matter, identified in the early 1950s by Bror Rexed to label portions of the grey columns of the spinal cord. Similar to Brodmann areas, they are defined by their cellular structure rather ...

                                               

Thecal sac

The thecal sac or dural sac is the membranous sheath or tube of dura mater that surrounds the spinal cord and the cauda equina. The thecal sac contains the cerebrospinal fluid which provides nutrients and buoyancy to the spinal cord. From the sku ...

                                               

Superior ganglion of vagus nerve

The superior ganglion of the vagus nerve, is a sensory ganglion of the peripheral nervous system. It is located within the jugular foramen, where the vagus nerve exits the skull. It is smaller than and above the inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve.

                                               

Autonomic ganglia of the head and neck

                                               

Somatic ganglia of the head and neck

                                               

Autonomic ganglion

An autonomic ganglion is a cluster of nerve cell bodies in the autonomic nervous system. The two types are sympathetic ganglion and parasympathetic ganglion.

                                               

Cervical ganglia

The cervical ganglia are paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. Preganglionic nerves from the thoracic spinal cord enter into the cervical ganglions and synapse with its postganglionic fibers or nerves. The cervical ganglion has ...

                                               

Inferior cervical ganglion

The inferior cervical ganglion is situated between the base of the transverse process of the last cervical vertebra and the neck of the first rib, on the medial side of the costocervical artery. Its form is irregular; it is larger in size than th ...

                                               

Parasympathetic ganglia

                                               

Sympathetic ganglia

                                               

Inferior ganglion of vagus nerve

The inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve, is a sensory ganglion of the peripheral nervous system. It is located within the jugular foramen where the vagus nerve exits the skull. It is larger than and below the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve.

                                               

Autonomic nervous system

The autonomic nervous system, formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs. The autonomic nervous system is a co ...

                                               

Splanchnic nerves

The splanchnic nerves are paired visceral nerves, carrying fibers of the autonomic nervous system as well as sensory fibers from the organs. All carry sympathetic fibers except for the pelvic splanchnic nerves, which carry parasympathetic fibers.

                                               

Parasympathetic nervous system

                                               

Sympathetic nervous system

                                               

Vagus nerve

                                               

Cranial nerves

Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain, of which there are conventionally considered twelve pairs. Cranial nerves relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to and from regions of the head and ...

                                               

Abducens nerve

The abducens nerve is the sixth cranial nerve, in humans, that controls the movement of the lateral rectus muscle, responsible for outward gaze. It is a somatic efferent nerve.

                                               

Terminal nerve

The terminal nerve, or cranial nerve zero, was discovered by German scientist Gustav Fritsch in 1878 in the brains of sharks. It was first found in humans in 1913. A 1990 study has indicated that the terminal nerve is a common finding in the adul ...

                                               

Table of cranial nerves

                                               

Trochlear nerve

The trochlear nerve, also called the fourth cranial nerve or CN IV, is a motor nerve that innervates only a single muscle: the superior oblique muscle of the eye, which operates through the pulley-like trochlea. The trochlear nerve is unique amon ...

                                               

Cranial nerve nuclei

                                               

Trigeminal nerve

                                               

Celiac plexus

The celiac plexus or coeliac plexus, also known as the solar plexus because of its radiating nerve fibers, is a complex network of nerves located in the abdomen, near where the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, and renal arteries branch f ...

                                               

Pancreatic plexus

                                               

Subsartorial plexus

The subsartorial plexus is a plexus of nerves that is located under the sartorius muscle. It is formed by: the medial cutaneous nerve of the thigh a branch of the femoral nerve the saphenous nerve a branch from femoral nerve the cutaneous branch ...

                                               

C tactile afferent

In humans, these CTs have always been linked to pleasant touch behavior and are most responsive during slow gentle stroking of a brush with the velocity of 3 cm/s. CT neurons project to the insular cortex in the brain, and the firing frequency of ...

                                               

Chiasm (anatomy)

In anatomy a chiasm is the spot where two structures cross, forming an X-shape. This can be: A tendinous chiasm is the spot where two tendons cross. For example, the tendon of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, and the tendon of the flexo ...

                                               

Pelvic splanchnic nerves

Pelvic splanchnic nerves or nervi erigentes are splanchnic nerves that arise from sacral spinal nerves S2, S3, S4 to provide parasympathetic innervation to the hindgut.

                                               

Reaction of degeneration

Lack of muscle response. The muscle is not able to irritation by AC, but irritated by DC. The muscle contractility from anode is greater than cathode.

                                               

Beta motor neuron

Beta motor neurons, also called beta motoneurons, are a kind of lower motor neuron, along with alpha motor neurons and gamma motor neurons. Beta motor neurons innervate intrafusal fibers of muscle spindles with collaterals to extrafusal fibers - ...

                                               

Gamma motor neuron

A gamma motor neuron, also called gamma motoneuron, is a type of lower motor neuron that takes part in the process of muscle contraction, and represents about 30% of fibers going to the muscle. Like alpha motor neurons, their cell bodies are loca ...

                                               

Lower motor neuron

Lower motor neurons are motor neurons located in either the anterior grey column, anterior nerve roots or the cranial nerve nuclei of the brainstem and cranial nerves with motor function. All voluntary movement relies on spinal lower motor neuron ...

                                               

Memory cells (motor cortex)

Memory cells are found in the primary motor cortex, a region located in the posterior portion of the frontal lobe of the brain. Their behavior is described by Bizzi et al. as: In a baseline epoch no force field on the end effector, they have one ...

                                               

Motor unit

A motor unit is made up of a motor neuron and the skeletal muscle fibers innervated by that motor neurons axonal terminals. Groups of motor units often work together to coordinate the contractions of a single muscle; all of the motor units within ...

                                               

Motor unit plasticity

The motor unit consists of a voluntary alpha motoneuron and all of the collective muscle fibers that it controls, known as the effector muscle. The alpha motoneuron communicates with acetylcholine receptors on the motor end plate of the effector ...

                                               

Ramus communicans

Ramus communicans is the Latin term used for a nerve which connects two other nerves, and can be translated as "communicating branch".

                                               

Spinal nerves

                                               

Interpeduncular nucleus

The Interpeduncular nucleus is an unpaired, ovoid cell group at the base of the midbrain tegmentum. It is located in the mesencephalon below the interpeduncular fossa. As the name suggests, the interpeduncular nucleus lies in between the cerebral ...

                                               

Magnocellular red nucleus

The magnocellular red nucleus is located in the rostral midbrain and is involved in motor coordination. Together with the parvocellular red nucleus, the mRN makes up the red nucleus. Due to the role it plays in motor coordination, the magnocellul ...

                                               

Midbrain tegmentum

The midbrain tegmentum is part of the midbrain that is broken up into the tectum and the tegmentum. The midbrain tegmentum extends from the substantia nigra to the cerebral aqueduct in a horizontal section of the midbrain. It forms the floor of t ...

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