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Panner disease

Panner disease is an osteochondrosis of the capitellum of the elbow. Panner disease is primarily seen in boys between the ages of five and ten years old. Panner disease is often caused by excessive throwing due to valgus stress. The disease cause ...

                                               

Bicipital tenosynovitis

Bicipital tenosynovitis is tendinitis or inflammation of the tendon and sheath lining of the biceps muscle. It is often the result of many years of small tears or other degenerative changes in the tendon first manifesting in middle age, but can b ...

                                               

Coxalgia

Coxalgia also known as coxodynia from coxa – hip and -algia / odyne pain and is defined as pain in the hip or disease-related pain of the hip. Coxalgia refers to general sensation of pain in the hip area, including the muscles surrounding the hip ...

                                               

Contracture

In pathology, a contracture is a permanent shortening of a muscle or joint. It is usually in response to prolonged hypertonic spasticity in a concentrated muscle area, such as is seen in the tightest muscles of people with conditions like spastic ...

                                               

Cricopharyngeal spasm

Cricopharyngeal spasms occur in the cricopharyngeus muscle of the pharynx. These spasms are frequently misunderstood by the patient to be cancer due to the lump in the throat feeling that is symptomatic of this syndrome. In practice, real lumps i ...

                                               

Dynapenia

Dynapenia is the loss of muscular strength not caused by neurological or muscular disease that typically is associated with older adults. Is Dynapenia loss of muscle strength, not muscle mass. The preservation of muscular strength through the agi ...

                                               

Hereditary inclusion body myopathy

Hereditary inclusion body myopathies are a group of rare genetic disorders which have different symptoms. Generally, they are neuromuscular disorders characterized by muscle weakness developing in young adults. Hereditary inclusion body myopathie ...

                                               

Muscle imbalance

Muscle imbalance can be described as the respective equality between the antagonist and agonist, this balance is necessary for normal muscle movement and roles. Muscular imbalance can also be explained in the scenario where the muscle performs ou ...

                                               

Myopathy

Myopathy is a disease of the muscle in which the muscle fibers do not function properly. This results in muscular weakness. Myopathy means muscle disease. This meaning implies that the primary defect is within the muscle, as opposed to the nerves ...

                                               

Sarcoglycanopathy

The sarcoglycanopathies are a collection of diseases resulting from mutations in any of the five sarcoglycan genes: α, β, γ, δ or ε. The five sarcoglycanopathies are: α-sarcoglycanopathy, LGMD2D, β-sarcoglycanopathy, LGMD2E, γ-sarcoglycanopathy, ...

                                               

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a condition featuring attacks of muscle weakness in the presence of hyperthyroidism. Hypokalemia is usually present during attacks. The condition may be life-threatening if weakness of the breathing muscles leads ...

                                               

Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma of bone

Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma of bone is an extremely rare tumor first described in 1984. Fewer than 20 cases have been reported, with patient ages spanning from 9 to 25 years, though a case in a male infant aged 1 year and 7 months has been re ...

                                               

Heterotopic ossification

In traumatic heterotopic ossification traumatic myositis ossificans, the patient may complain of a warm, tender, firm swelling in a muscle and decreased range of motion in the joint served by the muscle involved. There is often a history of a blo ...

                                               

Metabolic bone disease

Metabolic bone disease is an abnormality of bones caused by a broad spectrum of disorders. Most commonly these disorders are caused by abnormalities of minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium or vitamin D leading to dramatic clinical diso ...

                                               

Osteofibrous dysplasia

Osteofibrous dysplasia is a rare, benign non-neoplastic condition with no known cause. It is considered a fibrovascular defect. Campanacci described this condition in two leg bones, the tibia and fibula, and coined the term. This condition should ...

                                               

Periostitis

Periostitis, also known as periostalgia, is a medical condition caused by inflammation of the periosteum, a layer of connective tissue that surrounds bone. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone a ...

                                               

Trabecular bone score

The trabecular bone score is a measure of bone texture correlated with bone microarchitecture and a marker for the risk of osteoporosis. Introduced in 2008, its main projected use is alongside measures of bone density in better predicting fractur ...

                                               

Accessory navicular bone

An accessory navicular bone is an accessory bone of the foot that occasionally develops abnormally in front of the ankle towards the inside of the foot. This bone may be present in approximately 2-21% of the general population and is usually asym ...

                                               

Axial osteomalacia

Axial osteomalacia is a rare osteosclerotic disorder characterized by axial skeleton pain, coarsening of the trabecular bone pattern on radiographs of the axial but not appendicular skeleton.

                                               

Baastrups sign

Baastrups sign is an orthopedic and radiographic disorder that often occurs in elderly humans. It is characterized by enlargement of the posterior spinous processes of the lumbar spine, with normal intervertebral disc height and neuroforamina. Th ...

                                               

Bone erosion

Bone erosion is the loss of bone from disease processes. Erosive arthritis is joint inflammation with bone destruction, and such conditions include rheumatoid arthritis. Bone erosion is the loss of bone in a certain area, rather than a change in ...

                                               

Brown tumor

The brown tumor is a bone lesion that arises in settings of excess osteoclast activity, such as hyperparathyroidism. They are a form of osteitis fibrosa cystica. It is not a neoplasm, but rather simply a mass. It most commonly affects the maxilla ...

                                               

Ligamentous laxity

Ligamentous laxity, or ligament laxity, means loose ligaments. Ligamentous laxity is a cause of chronic body pain characterized by loose ligaments. When this condition affects joints in the entire body, it is called generalized joint hypermobilit ...

                                               

Malignant infantile osteopetrosis

Malignant infantile osteopetrosis, is a rare osteosclerosing type of skeletal dysplasia that typically presents in infancy and is characterized by a unique radiographic appearance of generalized hyperostosis - excessive growth of bone. Generalize ...

                                               

Muller AO Classification of fractures

The Muller AO Classification of fractures is a system for classifying bone fractures initially published in 1987 by the AO Foundation as a method of categorizing injuries according to therognosis of the patients anatomical and functional outcome. ...

                                               

Porotic hyperostosis

Porotic hyperostosis, is a pathological condition that affects bones of the cranial vault, and is characterized by localized areas of spongy or porous bone tissue. The diploe, or spongy tissue within the bones of the cranium, swells and the tissu ...

                                               

Potts puffy tumor

Potts puffy tumor, first described by Sir Percivall Pott in 1760, is a rare clinical entity characterized by subperiosteal abscess associated with osteomyelitis. It is characterized by an osteomyelitis of the frontal bone, either direct or throug ...

                                               

Preiser disease

Preiser disease, or avascular necrosis of the scaphoid, is a rare condition where ischemia and necrosis of the scaphoid bone occurs without previous fracture. It is thought to be caused by repetitive microtrauma or side effects of drugs in conjun ...

                                               

Spondylosis

Spondylosis is the degeneration of the vertebral column from any cause. In the more narrow sense it refers to spinal osteoarthritis, the age-related wear and tear of the spinal column, which is the most common cause of spondylosis. The degenerati ...

                                               

Spondylosis deformans

Spondylosis deformans is a disease of spine in humans and other vertebrates. It occurs when intervertebral discs begin to degenerate, leading to the formation of bony spurs or bridges around the disc and nearby spinal joints. Severe cases can res ...

                                               

Steroid-induced osteoporosis

Steroid-induced osteoporosis is osteoporosis arising due to use of glucocorticoids - analogous to Cushings syndrome and involving mainly the axial skeleton. The synthetic glucocorticoid prescription drug prednisone is a main candidate after prolo ...

                                               

Adhesive capsulitis of shoulder

Adhesive capsulitis, or frozen shoulder, is a condition associated with shoulder joint pain and stiffness. There is loss of both passive and active range of motion and shoulder movement is extremely painful. The pain and stiffness can impact dail ...

                                               

Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma

It is characterized cystic blood-filled spaces and composed of histiocyte-like cells. A lymphocytic cuff is common. It often simulates a vascular lesion, and was initially described as doing this. The website AFH, usually a chromosomal translocat ...

                                               

Calcific bursitis

Calcific bursitis refers to calcium deposits within the bursae. This most occurs in the shoulder area. The most common bursa for calcific bursitis to occur is the subacromial bursa. A bursa is a small, fluid-filled sac that reduces friction, and ...

                                               

Fibromatosis

The term fibromatosis refers to a group of soft tissue tumors which have certain characteristics in common, including absence of cytologic and clinical malignant features, a histology consistent with proliferation of well-differentiated fibroblas ...

                                               

Iliopsoas bursitis

Iliopsoas bursitis is inflammation of a bursa lying between iliopsoas muscle and hip joint, lateral to femoral vessels. Pain is experienced over the same area and made worse by extension of hip joint.

                                               

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours are characterized by a mix of inflammatory cells, e.g. plasma cells, lymphocytes and eosinophils, and bland spindle cells without nuclear atypia. These tumours may have necrosis, hemorrhage, focal calcificatio ...

                                               

Ischial bursitis

Ischial bursitis is inflammation of the synovial bursa located between gluteus maximus muscle and ischial tuberosity. Usual cause is prolonged sitting on a hard surface.

                                               

Olecranon bursitis

Olecranon bursitis is a condition characterized by swelling, redness, and pain at the tip of the elbow. If the underlying cause is due to an infection, fever may be present. The condition is relatively common and is one of the most frequent types ...

                                               

Retrocalcaneal bursitis

Retrocalcaneal bursitis is an inflammation of the bursa located between the calcaneus and the anterior surface of the Achilles tendon. It commonly occurs in association with rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathies, gout, and trauma. The pain ...

                                               

Interstitial lung disease

Interstitial lung disease, or diffuse parenchymal lung disease, is a group of lung diseases affecting the interstitium. It concerns alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium, basement membrane, and perivascular and perilymphatic tissue ...

                                               

Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

An acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is a sudden worsening of COPD symptoms including that typically lasts for several days. It may be triggered by an infection with bacteria or viruses or by environmental pollutants. T ...

                                               

Automatism (medicine)

Automatism refers to a set of brief unconscious behaviors. These typically last for several seconds to minutes or sometimes longer, a time during which the subject is unaware of his/her actions. This type of automatic behaviour often occurs in ce ...

                                               

Benign familial infantile epilepsy

Benign familial infantile epilepsy is an epilepsy syndrome. Affected children, who have no other health or developmental problems, develop seizures during infancy. These seizures have focal origin within the brain but may then spread to become ge ...

                                               

Benign infantile epilepsy

Benign infantile epilepsy, also known as benign infantile seizures, is an epilepsy syndrome of which several forms have been described. The International League Against Epilepsy classify two main forms of the syndrome though several other forms h ...

                                               

Catamenial epilepsy

Catamenial epilepsy is a form of epilepsy in women where seizures are exacerbated during certain phases of the menstrual cycle. Seizures may rarely occur only during certain parts of the cycle, but are more commonly only more frequent. Catamenial ...

                                               

Early myoclonic encephalopathy

Early myoclonic encephalopathy is an epilepsy syndrome where myoclonic seizures develop in the neonatal period. After several months, the seizure pattern may develop to infantile spasms. Various genetic and metabolic disorders are responsible. Th ...

                                               

Frontal lobe epilepsy

Frontal lobe epilepsy is a neurological disorder that is characterized by brief, recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes of the brain, often while the patient is sleeping. It is the second most common type of epilepsy after temporal lo ...

                                               

Generalized epilepsy

Generalized epilepsy is a form of epilepsy characterised by generalised seizures with no apparent cause. Generalized seizures, as opposed to focal seizures, are a type of seizure that impairs consciousness and distorts the electrical activity of ...

                                               

Ictal bradycardia

Ictal bradycardia is when people with temporal lobe epilepsy experience bradycardia with their seizures. Bradycardia is defined by a slower than normal heart rate, less than 60 bpm. During an attack of epileptic discharges may be affected by chan ...